Presentation on theme: "Revision Notes: Factors which affect human growth."— Presentation transcript:
Revision Notes: Factors which affect human growth
Key term: Cognitive development Cognitive development is the construction of thought processes, including remembering, problem solving, and decision-making, from childhood through adolescence to adulthood.adolescence
Physical factors Genetic inheritance A baby will half the genes for their mother and the other half from their father Everybody’s genes are unique – unless they are identical twins Genes affect the way someone looks. Their health and the way their body works Almost all of a child’s physical characteristics, personality and specific talents will come from their genes Sometimes a parents will have a health disorder or disability can be inherited and will be passed down from a parent e.g. cystic fibrosis
Lifestyle choice Diet – low income may buy cheaper foods high in sugars and fats. Longer working hours might make people buy fast food. Poor diet could result in obesity and health problems such as heart diseases, strokes, diabetes and mobility problems Exercise – regular exercise reduces the risk of obesity Alcohol – personality changes, accidents, violent outbursts, liver disease or heart problems. If pregnant women drink during pregnancy it can increase the risk of miscarriage, stillbirth, premature birth or low birth weight. Smoking – contains chemicals which damage body cells can cause lung cancer. Drugs – Drug misuse can have a negative impact on health e.g. liver and kidney problems. Illegal drugs may impact on behaviour and mood swings.
Illness and disease Disease is the body reaction to any disturbance or anomaly in the normal function of the body. Disease can cause pain, distress, social problems or even death. Illness is more feeling unwell – more likely to be temporary e.g. cold or viral infection Some illnesses and diseases can cause the following: Sight or hearing problems impairments – impact on cognitive developments and communication skills Down’s syndrome, genetic conditions or birth defects could be responsible for slower cognitive development Autism disorders could lead to problems with language and communication Cerebral Palsy will impact om muscle development and movement
Questions 1.Give two examples of genetically inherited factors (2) 2.Fred is a heavy smoker and wants to improve his lifestyle. Outline the benefits of stopping smoking and taking up exercise (4) 3.Lauren has picked up a flu virus at school. Is this likely to affect her growth and development? Why? (4)
Social, Cultural and Emotional factors which affect development The influence of play Play is an essential element in a child’s development and can develop cognitive skills Play will be first step in social interaction Play will develop in stages Solitary play is first stage of play (playing alone) Then progress to social play – playing along side another child or adult Playing with other children Then play which involves planning and rules.
Culture Culture is religion, spirituality or community influences It will impact on the way we dress, the food we eat and our social interaction E.g. Some Muslim women will wear a dress which covers them, or some married Jewish women will always wear a wig to cover their actual hair Parent or carer will have an important part in introducing this to a child
Gender Young children are aware of the difference between genders Impact on dress, toys they are given and the way some adults interact with them Education is sometimes selected on this Some inequalities still exist in the work place
Role Models First role model is parents – child will copy and imitate what they see their parents do Skills are first learned from observing others Children and adults will imitate the behaviour of people they admire As children grow their peers and social media may impact on the way they dress, food they eat and views they have
Social Isolation Usually associated with the elderly Young mothers and those with disabilities may also suffer isolation and loneliness Can have a negative impact on health, quality of life, self-image and self esteem.
Questions 1.State two benefits of role models in human development (2) 2.State two possible problems created by role models in development? (4) 3.Explain why it is important or children to learn to play with others (4)