Friedrich Engels: Realism is a truthful representation of typical characters in typical circumstances
Franz Kafka: Real realism is unreal.
Realism is to see things as they are
Social sciences Auguste Comte John Stuart Mills Herbert Spencer
Hippolyte Taine Human beings are shaped by three factors: “race”(biological, hereditary) “milieu”(social invironment) “temps”(historical situation)
Stendal (Marie-Henri Beyle) A novel is a mirror walking along the road.
Emile Zola A novelist is an experimental scientist. “Un oevre d’Art est un coin de la nature vù à travers un temperament ”
Arno Holz Art = Nature - X
Anton Chechov “To a scientist nothing is unclean. A writer must be as objective as a chemist, he must abandon the subjective line: he must know that dungheaps play a very respectable part in the landscape and that evil passions are as inherent in life as good ones.”
Symbolism 1886 Symbolist manifesto
Charles Baudelaire Paul Verlaine Stéfane Malarmé Artur Rimbaud