2 * Pronunciation: /θ/ /đ/ * Grammar and vocabulary:1. Non-defining and defining relative clauses.2. Although to connect contrasting ideas.
3 I./Pronunciation:Listen and repeat:/θ/ /đ/think thin they thenthought something those anothermouth birthday clothes brother
4 * Practise these sentences: I thought Mr.Smith was thirty-three.2. But next Thursday will be his thirtieth birthday.3. Something about him makes me think he is like my brother.4. The roses that you gave him are beautiful.5. Look at the clothes on that thin man over there.!
5 II./Grammar and vocabulary: A. Non-defining and defining relative clauses1. Relative clauses : (Mệnh đề quan hệ)* Remember:_ Mệnh đề quan hệ là mệnh đề được dùng để bổ nghĩa cho danh từ đứng trước nó._ Mệnh đề quan hệ phải đứng ngay sau danh từ mà nó bổ nghĩa._ Trong mệnh đề thường có thể sử dụng những trạng töø quan hệ: when, where, why, what._ Mệnh đề quan hệ được nối với mệnh đề chính bằng các đại từ quan hệ: who, whom, which, whose, that…Ex: 1. This is my country where I was born.2. The boy who sits near me is very friendly.
6 WHO:duøng thay theá cho danh töø chæ ngöôøi;coù theå laøm chuû töø hoaëc tuùc töø. a.This is the man who saved my life (who=subject)b.This is the man who\whom I was telling you about (who\whom=object)WHICH:duøng thay theá danh töø chæ vaät;coù theå laøm chuû töø hoaëc tuùc töø.a.He took me to a restaurant which had very good service (which=subject)b.He took me to the restaurant which we’d read about in the paper. (which=object)
7 THAT:coù theå duøng ôû caùc vò trí cuûa WHO hoacë WHICH nhö trong caùc caâu treân. a.This is the man that\who taught me how to play the guitar.b.He took me to the school that\which was built his grandfather.
8 WHOSE: laø ñaïi töø quan heä sôû höõu thay theá cho danh töø chæ ngöôøi hoaëc vaät,loaøi vaät (vôùi yù nghóa nhö”his,her,their”….).This is the man whose daughter teaches at our school(This is the man. His daughter teaches at our school)The man whose car was stolen is now reporting to the police.(The man is now reporting to the police. His car was stolen.)
9 ZERO relative: khi who hoaë which duøng ôû vò trí tuùc töø(object) chuùng ta coù theå löôïc boû. a.Do you remember the name of the man who\whom we met on the train?OR: Do you remember the name of the man we met on the train? (zero relative)b. The movie which we watched on TV last night was really movingOR: The movie we watched on TV last night was really moving (Zero relative)
10 WHERE & WHEN : chúng ta có thể dùng WHERE và WHEN như các đại từ quan hệ (Relative pronouns). WHERE dùng sau từ chỉ nơi chốn; WHEN dùng sau từ chỉ thời gian.a). The factory is going to close down. My brother works there.The factory where my brother works is going to close down.b). We’re returning to the town. We spent a few holidays in that town.We’re returning to the town where we spent a few holidays.
11 c). Do you remember the time? The accident happened at that time. Do you remember the time when the accident happened?d). I went on a trip last summer. I met my boyfriend at that time.I went on a trip last summer when I met my boyfriend.
12 WHY : sau từ “ reason” chúng ta thường dùng WHY ( cũng có thể dùng THAT để nối thành mệnh đề quan hệ ( Relative claues) :a). She left without saying anything. I don’t know the reason.I don’t know the reason why she left without saying anything.b). They were late. Did they tell you the reason?Did they tell you the reason why they were late ?
13 a. Defining relative clauses: (Mệnh đề quan hệ xác định) * Định nghĩa:Mệnh đề quan hệ được gọi là xác định khi nó cần thiết cho ý nghĩa của câu. Bỏ nó đi câu sẽ không đầy đủ ý nghĩa. (Mô tả những danh từ đứng trước nó để phân biệt với các danh từ khác cùng loại, làm rõ danh từ).Ex: 1. The woman who lives next door is a doctor.2. The hotel where we stayed was very clean.
14 b. Non-defining relative clauses: (Mệnh đề quan hệ không xác định) * Định nghĩa:Mệnh đề quan hệ được gọi là không xác định khi nó không cần thiết cho ý nghĩa của câu, bỏ nó đi mệnh đề chính vẫn đảm bảo đầy đủ ý nghĩa.* Đặc điểm:Mệnh đề quan hệ được gọi là không xác định khi trước nó là 1 danh từ riêng, hoặc trước danh từ đó có các tính từ sở hữu (my, his, her, your, our, their,…) hay đại từ chỉ định (this , that, these, those…)Ex: 1. The Thames, which flows through London, is a beautiful river.2. His daughter, who sat next to me, sang well.
15 * Note:_ Giữa mệnh đề chính và mệnh đề quan hệ không xác định có dấu phẩy ngăn cách._ Không được lược bỏ đại từ quan hệ trong mệnh đề quan hệ không xác định.which: có thể thay thế cho 1 mệnh đềEx: Marry passed her driving test, which surprised everybody.
16 c. Relative pronouns with prepositions: (giới từ trong mệnh đề quan hệ) _Giới từ thường đứng trước whom (cho người) và which (cho vật).Ex: to whom/with whom/for which/to which/all of/ most of/ ….. + whom/which.Mr.Smith, to whom I spoke on the phone last night, is very interested in soccer.
17 Although + S + V , main clause Main clause + although + S +V B. Connecting contrasting ideas: Although_ Chúng ta dùng các liên từ trong mệnh đề chỉ sự nhượng bộ khi chúng ta muốn nói rằng có sự tương phản xảy ra trong mệnh đề chính và mệnh đề chỉ sự nhượng bộ._ Cấu trúc:Although + S + V , main clauseMain clause + although + S +VCấu trúc trên cũng áp dụng đối với các liên từ khác trong mệnh đề nhượng bộ, như: though, even though.
18 * Note: Nếu các liên từ although, though, even though được đặt ở đầu câu thì mệnh đề chỉ sự nhượng bộ phải được đặt ngăn cách với mệnh đề chính bằng 1 dấu phẩy. Khi chúng được đặt giữa câu thì giữa 2 mệnh đề không cần dấu phẩy ngăn cách.Ex: 1. Although the home team lost, they played very well.2. Even though it was raining, I still went to school on time.3. He still goes to school although he isn’t fine.
19 Note: Khi dùng though, although, even though, ta không dùng but và ngược lại Ex: 1. Although she isn’t brilliant, she studies quite well.2. She isn’t brilliant but she studies quite well.Although + clause (S+V)In spite of + N / Noun phrase / V-ing
20 Exercise 2. Combine the following sentences using although Example: New York is not the capital of the USA. It is the home of the United Nations.-Although New York is not the capital of the USA, it is the home of the United Nations.There is not much to do in the countryside. I prefer living in the countryside.Although there is not much to do in the countryside, I prefer living there.
21 2. There is a lot of pollution in Los Angeles 2. There is a lot of pollution in Los Angeles. It is an ideal place to live.3. The shops are crowded. People are not buying much.Although there is a lot of pollution in Los Angeles, it is an ideal place to live.Although the shops are crowded, people are not buying much.
22 4. The city is a favourite tourist destination for many people 4. The city is a favourite tourist destination for many people. It has its problems.5. It is a safe neighbourhood. It is best to be careful.Although the city is a favourite tourist destination for many, it has its problems.Although it is a safe neighbourhood, it is best to be careful.
27 UNIT 15: CITIESI. PRONUNCIATIONA. Which of the following words in each group is stressed on a different syllable from the others?1. B. rename 2. A. apartment 3. C. museum 4. D. gallery 5. C. characterizeB. Which of the following words in each group has the underlined part pronounced differently from that of the others?1. A. thought 2. D. these 3.A 4.C 5.D
28 II. GRAMMAR PRACTICEExercise 1: Complete the sentences in Column A with the adjective clauses in column B.1. C F I K B6. E H A D GExercise 2: Decide which answer A, B, or C best fits each space.1. C 2. C 3. B A 5. C6. C 7. A 8. C 9. C B11. A 12. A 13. C C 15. C
29 Exercise 3: Write the pronouns that can be used to connect the adjective clauses to the main clauses: who, who(m), which, whose , that, and/or Þ1. which / that / Þ 2. who / that 3. whom4. who(m) / that / Þ5. whose 6. who(m) / that / Þ7. whose which / that / Þ9. who /that whose which / that / Þ12. whom which / that14. whose whom
30 Exercise 4: Match the parts and write the sentences with an adding clause. Use who or which. Use commas where necessary.1. Nelson Mandela, who was in prison for 27 years, became President of South Africa.2. John Lennon, who was killed in 1980, was one of the Beatles.3. The Titanic, which sank in 1912, was supposed to be unsinkable.4. Queen Victoria, who came to the throne in1837, ruled over the British Empire.
31 5. Mars, which is 140 million miles away, is known as the red planet. 6. The Berlin Wall, which was built in 1961, stood for 28 years.
32 Exercise 5: Make one sentence from two Exercise 5: Make one sentence from two. Use the sentence in brackets to make a RelativeClause. Use commas where necessary.1. Catherine, who lives next door, is very friendly.2. We stayed at the Park hotel, which a friend of ours had recommended.3. I went to see the doctor who told me to rest for a few days.4. We often go to visit our friends in Bristol, which is not very far away.5. John, who (m) I have known for a very long time, is one of my closest friends.
33 6. Sheila, whose job involves a lot of traveling, is away from home a lot. 7. The new stadium which can hold 90,000 people will be opened next month.8. A friend of mine, whose father is the manager of a company, helped me to get a job.9. People who are protesting against pollution have matched to London.10. The girl whose bag I offered to carry turned out to be an old friend.11. John’s flat, which is in the same block as mine, is much larger.
34 12. My radio, which isn’t very old, has suddenly stopped working. 13. The person to whom I spoke before said the repair would be free of charge.14. My bedroom, which was rather small, looked out a noisy street.15. The guests who were late didn’t have enough to eat.
35 Exercise 6: Complete the sentences Exercise 6: Complete the sentences. Use although + a sentence from the box.1. Although he has a very important job, he isn’t particularly well-paid.2. Although I had never seen her before, I recognized her from a photograph.3. She wasn’t wearing the coat although it was quite cold.4. We thought we’d better invite them to the party although we don’t like them very much5. Although I didn’t speak the language, I managed to make myself understand.6. Although the heat was on, the room wasn’t warm.
36 7. I didn’t recognize her although I’d met her twice before. 8. We’re not very good friends although we’ve known each other a long time9. Although Minh was ill, he still came to the meeting.10. Although he promised that he wouldn’t be late, he didn’t arrive until 9 o’clock.
37 Exercise 7: Choose the best completion. 1. C C B B C.6. B A A A C.Exercise 8: Choose the correct completion, although or in spite of.1. In spite of 2. although 3. in spite of 4. although 5. although6. In spite of 7. although 8. in spite of 9. in spite of 10. although
38 Exercise 9: Rewrite the sentences, using although or in spite of. 1. Although I was very tired, I didn’t sleep.2. Although the salary was low, he accepted the job.3. Although I was hungry, I didn’t eat anything.4. Although he felt unwell, he went on working.5. Although he was disappointed, he tried to smile.6. In spite of their quarrel, they remain the best of friends.7. In spite of the bad weather, they went out for dinner.
39 8. In spite of his age, he still leads an active life. 9. In spite of his hard work / working hard, Ba he failed his exam.10. In spite of the heavy rain, we decided to go to see the match.
40 III. VOCABULARY & WORD STUDY Exercise 1: Complete each sentence with the correct form of the word in parentheses.1. financial 2. financial 3. communicative 4. communication 5. famous6. differently 7. foundation 8. famous 9. fame 10. differencesExercise 2. Decide which answer A, B, C or D best fits each space.1. D. population 2. B. took over 3. B. variety 4. D. established 5. B. second6. C. located 7. A. symbol D. all over 9. C. well-known 10. A. one of the
41 Exercise 3. Decide which answer A, B, C or D best fits each space. 1. A. 2. B. 3. C. 4. D. 5. C. 6. D. 7. A. 8. C. 9. B. 10. D.