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Exercise in children and adolescents with

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2 Exercise in children and adolescents with

3 Dr SAMANEH NOROOZI Pediatrician Pediatric Endocrinologist
Assistant Professor of Pediatrics Birjand University of Medical Sciences

4 exercise is the third essential component in blood glucose regulation for persons with type 1 diabetes. the frequency of regular physical activity was associated with lower HbA1c without increasing the risk of severe hypoglycemia. weight control, reduced cardiovascular risk, and an improved sense of wellbeing.

5 Post-meal exercise can be a valuable way to minimize postprandial glycemic spikes .
Diabetes should not limit the ability to excel in a chosen sport. The topic most commonly discussed with families with regard to exercise is avoidance of hypoglycemia, but prevention of acute hyperglycemia/ketoacidosis may become a concern as well.

6 Factors affecting glucose response to exercise
Duration and intensity. Nearly all forms of activity lasting > 30 minutes will be likely to require some adjustment to food and/or insulin. repeated bouts of intensive activity interrupting longer periods of low to moderate intensity activity or rest produce a lesser fall in blood glucose levels compared to continuous moderate intensity exercise, both during and after the physical activity in young adults.

7 Type of activity. Anaerobic efforts last only a short time (sometimes
only seconds) but may increase the blood glucose level dramatically due to the release of the hormones adrenaline and glucagon. This rise in blood glucose is usually transient, lasting typically 30–60 minutes, and can be followed by hypoglycemia in the hours after finishing the exercise. Aerobic activities tend to lower blood glucose both during (usually within 20–60 minutes after the onset) and after the Exercise.

8 Metabolic control. Where control is poor and pre-exercise blood glucose level is high, circulating insulin levels may be inadequate and the effect of counter-regulatory hormones will be exaggerated, leading to a higher likelihood of ketosis.

9 Blood glucose level Children with diabetes can have normal aerobic
and endurance capacity if good glycemic control is achieved (HbA1c <7.0%), even if they are slightly hyperglycemic at the time of exercise. Aerobic capacity is lower and the fatigue rate is higher in youth with type 1 diabetes when glycemic control is less than optimal (i.e. HbA1c >7.5 %) cognitive performance has been shown to be slower in youth with diabetes when their blood glucose is either hypo- or hyperglycemic

10 Type and timing of insulin injections.
When regular (soluble) insulin has been injected prior to exercise, the most likely time for hypoglycemia will be 2-3h after injection and the high risk time after rapid-acting analog insulin is between 40 and 90 minutes.

11 Type and timing of food The amount of carbohydrate should be matched as closely as possible to the amount of carbohydrate utilized during exercise, if a reduction in insulin is NOT performed. In general, approximately 1.0–1.5 g CHO/kg body weight/h should be consumed during exercise performed during peak insulin action in young adults with diabetes, depending upon type of activity.

12 Short duration and high intensity anaerobic activities
(such as weight lifting, sprints, diving and baseball) may not require carbohydrate intake prior to the activity, but may produce a delayed drop in blood sugar. For activities of these types, extra carbohydrate after the activity is often the best option to prevent hypoglycemia

13 lower intensity aerobic activities such as soccer (often described as a mixture between aerobic and anaerobic exercise), cycling, jogging and swimming will require extra carbohydrate before, possibly during and often after the activity.

14 Absorption of insulin Choice of injection site Ambient temperature
Heat also places additional stress on the cardiovascular system, resulting in greater energy expenditure and potential for a faster drop in blood glucose levels.

15 Muscle mass/number of muscles used in the activity
Using more muscles produces a greater drop in blood glucose and weight bearing activities tend to use more energy than non weight-bearing activities

16 Conditioning Patients frequently report that the drop in blood
glucose may be less with regular conditioning and familiarity with the sport, although no experimental evidence exists that tests this hypothesis.

17 Degree of stress/competition involved in the activity
The adrenal response will raise blood glucose

18 Timing of the activity Morning activity, done before insulin administration, may not result in hypoglycemia as circulating insulin levels are typically low and glucose counter regulatory hormones may be high .Indeed, severe hyperglycemia may occur with vigorous exercise in these circumstances, even precipitating ketoacidosis.

19 Normal day to day exercise
Where exercise is performed regularly, insulin sensitivityis generally enhanced. A positive association between glycemic control (i.e. HbA1c) and aerobic fitness or reported physical activity exists in youth with type 1 diabetes, suggesting that either increased aerobic capacity may improve glycemic control or that good metabolic control maximizes exercise .An inverse relationship was observed between HbA1 level and the maximal work load in a study in diabetic adolescents

20 Choice of insulin regimen
Twice daily injections: It may be difficult to maintain very strict blood glucose control on these regimens especially with different levels of exercise throughout the week, but the essential requirements of taking various forms of carbohydrate before, during and after exercise may be even more important than for more adjustable regimens.

21 Multi-injection regimens or insulin pumps:
These regimens afford greater flexibility for serious training and competitive events. Both pre-exercise bolus and basal rates can be reduced before, during and after exercise to help increase hepatic glucose production and limit hypoglycemia

22 Hypoglycemia If a child with diabetes is feeling unwell during
exercise with signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia, glucose tablets or other form of quick-acting carbohydrate should be given as for treatment of hypoglycemia, even if blood glucose cannot be measured to confirm hypoglycemia. • To treat hypoglycemia with a rise in BG of approximately 3–4 mmol/L (55–70 mg/dl), approximately 9 g of glucose is needed for a 30 kg child (0.3 g/kg)and 15 g for a 50-kg child.

23 exercise for >1 hour can lead to increased insulin sensitivity and therefore an increased risk for hypoglycemia for at least 24 hours.

24 Intensity of exercise 30 minutes 60 minutes Low (∼25% VO2 max 25% 50%
Duration of exercise and recommended reduction in insulin Intensity of exercise 30 minutes 60 minutes Low (∼25% VO2 max 25% 50% Moderate (∼50% VO2 max 75% Heavy (∼75% VO2 max) -

25 Insulin pumps For certain types of exercise (like contact sports), it
may be appropriate to disconnect prior to the start of the activity and remain disconnected for up to 1-2h during an event. In these situations, patients may require a 50% bolus correction afterwards (ie. 50% of the missed basal insulin while disconnected.

26 Ketones In situations of under-insulinisation, whether through systematically poor control or intercurrent illness, any exercise is likely to be dangerous because of the effect of uninhibited action of the counterregulatory hormones. Thus it is important for families to be warned about not participating in exercise if blood glucose is high and ketones (small or more) are present in the urine or the level of beta-hydroxybutyrate (BOHB, ‘‘blood ketones’’) in blood is > 0.5 mmol/L.

27 Any exercise is dangerous and should be avoided
if pre-exercise blood glucose levels are high (>14 mmol/l, 250 mg/dl) with ketonuria/ketonemia. Give approximately 0.05 U/kg or 5% of TDD (total daily dose, including all meal bolus doses and basal insulin/basal rate in pump) and postpone exercise until ketones have cleared.

28 What to eat and drink When insulin is not reduced to accommodate for
exercise, it is usually necessary to consume extra carbohydrate in order to avoid hypoglycemia. This is dependent upon type and duration of activity. The amount of carbohydrate needed depends largely on the mass of the child and the activity performed as well as the level of circulating insulin . Up to 1.5 grams carbohydrate per kilogram of body mass per hour of strenuous exercise may be needed.

29 While not confined to people with diabetes, the risk
of dehydration should be borne in mind lest too much focus be kept upon glucose control. Even a 1% decrease in body mass due to dehydration may impair performance . In practice, both needs can often be met by using specially formulated drinks, but if dehydration is a risk, sugar free fluids should also be taken.

30 Monitoring Measurements of glucose should be taken
before, during and after the end of exercise with particular attention paid to the direction of change in Glycemia. Monitoring several hours after exercise and before bed is particularly critical on days where strenuous activities occur, as nocturnal hypoglycemia is common. a bedtime bloodglucose of less than 7 mmol/l (125 mg/dl) suggested particular risk for nocturnal hypoglycemia .

31 Diabetes complications
patients that have proliferative retinopathy or nephropathy should avoid exercise conditions that can result in high arterial blood pressures Patients with peripheral neuropathy should be careful to avoid blisters and cuts and should avoid running and other sports that involve excessive wear of legs and feet


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