Outline Coughs and colds Sore throats Ear infections Vomiting and diarrhoea Conjunctivitis Eczema
What are the symptoms of a common cold? How many can you think of with the person sitting next to you? Common Cold
Symptom s CoughSneeze Runny Nose Blocked Nose Fever Sore throat Ear acheOff food
Question How many colds is it normal for a child to have in one year? ANone B1-2 C4-5 D7-10 Answer
How to treat a common cold Plenty of fluids Rest Paracetamol Ibuprofen What about antibiotics?
Antibiotics Viruses and bacteria What’s the difference? Most common infections (coughs, colds, sore throats, ear infections, vomiting, diarrhoea) are caused by VIRUSES Antibiotics do not work against viruses The body’s immune system fights the infection
Antibiotics Antibiotics cause side effects (rash, vomiting, diarrhoea) If we use too many antibiotics now, they may not work in the future when we need them
When should I get help? Breathing difficulties Severeear pain or sore throat (painkillers not helping) Drooling saliva Not passing urine Severe headache or drowsiness Painfulto look at bright lights Tiny red or pinprick spots on skin
When should I get help? Ear pain for longer than 3 – 4 days Sore throat for longer than 7 days Cough and cold for longer than 10 days Getting worse rather than better
Ear Infections Inside the ear Often with cough, fever Usually caused by virus Antibiotics not always needed Outside the ear Usually itchy, sometimes painful Drops are sometimes needed
Vomiting and Diarrhoea Usually caused by a virus ‘viral gastroenteritis’
Treatment Fluids little and often Oral rehydration sachets Avoid anti-diarrhoea medicine Do not starve yourself Avoid greasy or spicy foods Maintain good hygiene Stay off nursery / school / work for 2 days
What is normal? When should I get help? Vomiting usually better after 2 – 3 days Diarrhoea usually better after 5 - 7 days (but may last up to 2 weeks) Passing any blood with vomit or diarrhoea Possible dehydration
Conjunctivitis Sticky red eye Sometimes itchy Often caused by virus
When should I get help? Painful eye Change in vision Unable to look at bright lights You wear contact lenses
Treatment Clean eyes with cotton wool and cooled boiled water Do not share towels Wash yourhands regularly Do not wear contact lenses until better
Eczema Very common Most children grow out of it Dry skin
Treatment Moisturisers Long term Every day Even when skin good Steroid Cream Short courses only When skin more itchy and red
Your medicine cupboard Painkillers / medicine for fever Paracetamol Ibuprofen Antihistamine Cetirizine Loratadine Plasters Thermometer
Where to get help Online www.nhs.uk www.nhsdirect.nhs.uk www.patient.co.uk Pharmacist NHS Direct 0845 46 47 Your GPOut of hours GPEmergency Department
Pharmacy First Register for free medicine (if you get free prescriptions) Do not need to wait for GP Ask your GP reception for details
When to go to A&E ‘critical or life threatening emergency’ Severe injuries Sudden chest or tummy pain Breathing difficulties Heavy blood loss Head injury Loss of consciousness or fit Suspected stroke Overdose
Quiz – Case 1 Your 3 year old son has been miserable all day and feels hot. His nose is a bit runny and he’s been coughing for the last 3-4 days. He’s not eating much at all, but is drinking some juice. He’s been lying on the sofa all day watching CBeebies. How might you assess how unwell he is? How might you manage this?
Quiz – Case 2 You are a 42 year old man who is normally well. You woke last night with stomach cramps which felt quite severe and you’ve been vomiting. You’ve vomited 6 or 7 times and also had watery diarrhoea about 8 times. You feel sick most of the time, but are trying to drink. What symptoms would you be worried about? What should you do?
Quiz – Case 3 Your 4 month old baby has seemed unwell for the last 12 hours She’s not been taking her milk (you think only about 6 or 7 oz in total). She keeps crying, feels hotand vomited once. No one else at home is unwell. You’ve given her some paracetomol, but it’s made no difference. It’s now 9pm and you’re worried. What are your thoughts? What are you going to do?
Quiz – Case 4 Your 6 year old has woken this morning and is complaining that his left ear hurts. He has a temperature of 37.6. Over the last few days he’s had a bit of a runny nose. What are you going to do?