Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8 Children with HIV/AIDS. Case study: Thomas Thomas, 8-month old boy was brought to hospital with history of fever for eight days. He looked small."— Presentation transcript:
Case study: Thomas Thomas, 8-month old boy was brought to hospital with history of fever for eight days. He looked small for his age and unwell. He had not been able to eat or drink much for 2 days because of sores in his mouth. His weight at triage was 6.4 kg
What are the stages in the management of and sick child?
Stages in the management of a sick child (Ref. Chart 1, p. xxii) 1.Triage Emergency treatment, if required 2.History and examination Laboratory investigations, if required 3.Differential diagnoses Main diagnosis 4.Treatment 5.Supportive care 6.Monitoring 7.Plan discharge Follow-up, if required
What emergency and priority signs have you noticed?
Triage Emergency signs (Ref. p. 2, 6) Obstructed breathing Severe respiratory distress Central cyanosis Signs of shock Coma Convulsions Severe dehydration Priority signs (Ref. p. 6) Tiny baby Temperature Trauma Pallor Poisoning Pain (severe) Respiratory distress Restless, irritable, lethargic Referral Malnutrition Oedema of both feet Burns
History Thomas was well until 5 months of age. Since then he had two episodes of pneumonia that needed several days of hospital treatment with intravenous antibiotics. Since the first admission he had had poor weight gain. He has not been able to eat or drink much in the last week because of mouth sores, which had been there for 4 weeks
History (continued) Thomas had had frequent episodes of watery diarrhoea since he was 5 months old. Each episode of diarrhoea lasted for 10-14 days, mostly watery diarrhoea with some mucus in the stool.
Nutrition history Family history Thomas is the second child of his parents. His father is 24 years old and is a truck driver. His mother is 20 years old and she is a housewife. His 18 month-old sister is healthy. They live in a small rented room. Thomas is still breastfed. He was exclusively breastfed till 5 months of age and then weaning food was introduced. The weaning food mainly contained rice, vegetables, and occasionally meat. Not feeding well in last week because of mouth sores
Examination Thomas was alert and active but miserable. He was a little pale and had muscle wasting, but was not cyanosed or jaundiced. He had bilateral enlarged inguinal, axillary and submandibular non- tender lymph nodes, all measuring 1-1.5cm. Vital signs: temperature: 38.5 0 C, pulse: 120/min, RR: 40/min, Weight: 6.4 kg Ear-Nose-Throat: white plaques over the buccal mucosa, gums and posterior oropharynx Skin: dry, flaky skin Chest: no respiratory distress, clear to auscultation Cardiovascular: both heart sounds were audible and there was no murmur Abdominal examination: liver was palpable 3 cm below the right costal margin and spleen was enlarged 5 cm below the left costal margin Neurology: conscious; no neck stiffness
List possible causes of the illness Main diagnosis Secondary diagnoses Use references to confirm Differential diagnoses
Recurrent infections Oral thrush due to antibiotics HIV Congenital immune deficiency Primary malnutrition accompanied by various infections
Further examination based on differential diagnoses Look for: Recurrent infections Oral thrush – without antibiotic treatment, or lasting over 30 days despite treatment Chronic parotitis Lymphadenopathy and hepatomegaly Persistent and/or recurrent fever Herpes zoster Dermatitis Chronic suppurative lung disease Malnutrition Persistent diarrhoea (Ref. p. 226-227)
Investigations FBE Ulcer swab HIV antibody test –After counseling the parents and seeking consent –Interpretation of a positive test Effect of age (antibody and viral particle assay) Need for repeat test for confirmation
Full blood count: - Haemoglobin: 8.9 g/l (105-135) - Platelets:255 x 10 9 /l (150 – 400) - WCC:14.6 x 10 9 /l (6 – 18.0) - Neutrophils: 12.2 x 10 9 /l (1.0 – 8.5) - Lymphocytes:1.4 x 10 9 /l (4.0 – 10.0) - Monocytes:1.0 x 10 9 /l (0.1 – 1.0) Investigations (continued)
Thomas, his parents and his elder sister’s (Rachel) HIV status were tested after the obligation to maintain confidentiality was assured. (Ref. p. 228). The parents were encouraged to have a HIV test and the implications of the diagnosis were explained to them. Thomas, his mother and father had positive HIV antibody test by ELISA assay. Rachel had a negative HIV antibody test. Investigations (continued)
Diagnosis Summary of findings: History: persistent diarrhoea Examination: recurrent infection, oral thrush, generalised lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly Blood examination shows mild anaemia, lymphopenia Chest X-ray: bilateral lymphadenopathy HIV antibody test by ELISA assay: positive What stage of the disease is Thomas at? see Table 22, p. 231
Antiretroviral treatment There are three main classes (Ref. p. 234): Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors –AZT (zidovudine), lamivudine, stavudine, didanosine, abacavir Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors –Nevirapine, efavirenz Protease inhibitors: –Nelfinavir, lopinavir/ritonavir, saquinavir Usually two NRTIs plus one NNRTI
Antiretroviral treatment (continued) Consider: –Resistance to single or dual agents is quick to emerge, at least 3 drugs are the recommended minimum standard for all settings –Fixed dose combination therapy now used: e.g. Trimmune –Access to treatment needs to be ensured for other family members as well –High level of compliance and close follow-up are necessary
Antiretroviral treatment (continued) Who needs the treatment? –Age and certainty of diagnosis Clinical stagesART 4Treat Presumptive stage 4Treat 3 1 and 2Treat only where CD4 available and child: <18 month and CD4 <25% 18-59months and CD4 <15% >5 years and CD4<10% (Ref. p. 235)
Treatment (continued) □ Oral thrush Nystatin / ketaconazole (gentian violet) (Ref. p. 246) □ Treatment of persistent or bloody diarrhoea Albendazole, tinidazole, azithromycin (cryptosporidium) and zinc
Supportive care Nutrition: –Nasogastric feeds with breast milk –Multivitamins, vitamin A, zinc Immunization: –Asymptomatic HIV infection: give all vaccines –Symptomatic HIV infection (clinical AIDS): give all vaccines except BCG, measles and yellow fever (Ref. p. 240) Prophylaxis: Cotrimoxazole Consider isoniazid
Supportive care (continued) Palliative care: –Pain control –Antiemetics –Mouth care –Prevention of pressure areas –Care, kindness and consideration Psychological and social support
Follow-up HIV-infected children should, when not ill, attend MCH clinics like other children. In addition they need regular clinical follow-up at first-level facilities several times a year to monitor: –Clinical condition –Neurological development –Growth and nutrition –Immunization status –Social support for the family –Psychological well being
Summary The management of children with HIV infection is mostly similar to that of other sick children Antiretroviral treatment has improved the lives of many HIV affected children Cotrimoxazole prophylaxis is indicated at all ages Consider INAH prophylaxis Quality and duration of life can be improved with prompt treatment of inter-current infections and nutrition support Effective and inexpensive prevention of parent-to- child transmission is available
Prevention Prevention of Parent-to-child-transmission (PPTCT): –Pre-test counseling –Screening at antenatal care –Post-test counseling –Effective drug regimens (evolving) –Breast feeding counseling –Contraception
Your consent to our cookies if you continue to use this website.