Presentation on theme: "Illness and Disease Assistant Professor Dr. Ali K. Al-mesrawi Ph.D Mental Health Nursing"— Presentation transcript:
Illness and Disease Assistant Professor Dr. Ali K. Al-mesrawi Ph.D Mental Health Nursing
Illness Is a feeling, an experience of unhealthy which is entirely personal, interior to the patient. Often it accompanies disease, but the disease may be undeclared, as in the early stages of cancer or tuberculosis or diabetes. Sometimes illness exists where no disease can be found.
Illness: characteristics 1.No Prognosis, 2.Easily treated or recovery. 3.Diminishing of body functions. 4.Is highly subjective, 5.Only the person can say he or she is ill Example :flu.
Disease: Characteristics 1.Prognosis (recovery is difficult, chronic, or death) 2.Alteration and reduction of body function and capacities. 3.Shortening of the normal life span. Example :DM, MI,HT
Disease … Is a pathological process, most often physical (as in throat infection, or cancer of the bronchus), sometimes undetermined in origin, as in schizophrenia. There is an objectivity about disease which nurses are able to see, touch, measure, smell. Diseases are valued as the central facts in the medical view…
Classification of diseases: 1.Acute:Is typically characterized by severe symptoms and short duration (otitis media, appendicitis) 2.Chronic: lasts for an extended period, usually 6 months or longer and often for the person's life. (E.g. DM,MI,HT).
Etiology of diseases: -Today multiple factors are considered to interact in causing the disease; 1- Biological agents: viruses, bacteria, fungi,……….etc. 2Physical agents: heat, cold, humidity…..etc. 3-Genetically transmitted disease. 4-Stress. For example: TB is caused by tubercle bacillus, age, crowding.
Sickness … In general, "illness" is more general than "disease", which in turn is more general than "sickness". Sickness is a generic term referring to a condition you experience when do not feel well. Sickness may refer to being nauseated (e.g. motion sickness) or just being unwell because you are ill or tired.
Illness is very similar to disease, in everyday speech a disease is typically perceived as a problem more serious or incurable (e.g. a genetic disease). While an illness, on the other hand, is simply the cause of a temporary state of ill health (e.g. the flu).
A disease is more specific and is determined by a physician or health worker. The term sickness is usually applied if people miss work or cannot function normally in society.
Effects of illness: Impact on the client: Illness can lead to changes of client's lifestyle, body image, self- concept, and loss of autonomy. Changes vary depending on the nature, severity, duration of illness, attitudes about illness, the financial demands, and the lifestyle change.
1-Lifestyle changes: Lifestyle: means a values and behaviors adopted by a person in daily life. Ill person may change his diet, activity, exercises, rest, and sleep patterns. 2-Body image changes: Body image: means how a person perceives the size, appearance, and functioning of his or her body or its parts. (e.g. loss of body parts, scaring, etc..)
3- Self-concept changes : Self-concept: refers to the ideas, feelings, and beliefs one has about oneself. Many factors can play a part in a disturbance of self-concept and low self-steam, such as loss of body parts, financial problems, dependence on others, unemployment, inability to participate in social Functions,………….etc.
4- loss of autonomy: Autonomy: means the state of being independent and self- directed without outside control.(e.g. handicap) Nurses need to help clients express their thoughts and feelings; and help them effectively cope with change
Impact of illness on the family: A person's illness affects not only the person who is ill but also the family and significant others. The kind of effect and its extent depends on: a.The member of the family who is ill. b.The seriousness and length of the illness. c.The cultural and social customs the family follows.
The changes that can occur in the family include: a.Role changes. b.Social customs change. c.Financial problems. d.Increased stress due to anxiety about outcome of the illness for the client.