2NutritionStudy of what people eat and of eating habits and how these affect their health
3The Foods You Choose How do these factors influence your decisions? Personal PreferencesCultural BackgroundTime and ConvenienceFriendsThe Media
4Reading a Food Label Food Label Nutrition Facts Panel of nutrition information required on all processed foods regulated by the Food and Drug AdministrationNutrition FactsTitle of information panelthat is required on most foods
5Serving SizeServing Size: is the listing of food that is considered a servingProvided in familiar units, such as cups or pieces, followed by the metric amount, e.g., the number of gramsServing per container: listing of number of servings in container or package
6Calories Calories: number of calories in 1 serving Calories provide a measure of how much energy you get from a serving of the food.The General Guide to Calories provides a general reference for calories when you look at a Nutrition Facts label. This guide is based on a 2,000 calorie diet.
7Look at Fat, Cholesterol, & Sodium per serving % Daily Value: Based on 2000 calorie dietEating too much fat, saturated fat, trans fat, cholesterol, or sodium may increase your risk of certain chronic diseases, like heart disease, some cancers, or high blood pressure.
8Daily Value% Daily Values5% or less is LOW20% or more is HIGH
9Fiber, Vitamins, & Minerals Dietary Fiber: Aim for 25g/dayVitamins and Minerals: Aim for 100% of DV through a wide variety of foods
10Food LabelsIngredients listing: list of ingredients in a food. The ingredients are listed in order of quantity in food, the most to least.Food additives: substances intentionally added to foodEnriched food: nutrients lost during processing are added back into food
11Food Labels: Nutrient and Health Claims …FreeFat free: contains less than 0.5 g fatSugar free: contains less than 0.5 g sugarsLow in…Low in calories: contains less than 40 caloriesLow in sodium: contains less than 140 mg of sodiumHigh in…High in Vitamin C: one serving provides 20% or more of the DV of vitamin C
12Food Labels: Nutrient and Health Claims LightContains 50% less fat or at least 1/3 fewer calories then regular version of productExcellent source of…Excellent source of calcium: one serving provides 20% or more of the DV for calciumMay reduce your risk of heart diseaseCan appear on fiber containing grain products, fruits, and vegetables that are also low in saturated fats and cholesterol
13NutrientsNutrients are substances that the body needs to regulate bodily functions, promote growth, repair body tissues, and obtain energy.
15Energy Nutrients Why do we need energy? Your body needs energy for everything you do: running, playing an instrument, even sleeping.You need energy to maintain your body temperature and keep your heart beatingEnergy nutrients provide caloriesEnergy nutrients include carbohydrates, proteins and fatsCalorie: unit for the amount of energy released when nutrients are broken down
17Simple & Complex Carbohydrates Simple CarbohydratesSugars that naturally occur in fruits, vegetables and milkAdded sugars to manufactured foods such as cookies, candies, soft drinksComplex CarbohydratesStarches, found in plant foods, such as potatoes, grains, rice, oats, corn, and wheat productsComplex carbohydrates take longer for your body to metabolize than simple carbohydrates
18CarbohydratesFiber: a type of complex carbohydrate that can not be broken down by the bodyFiber passes through your body without being digestedBenefits of a high fiber diet includeHelps prevent constipationMay reduce risk of colon cancerMay help prevent heart diseaseFiber is found in whole grain breads and cereals, vegetables, fruits, nuts, beans and seeds
19FatsFats supply your body with energy, form your cells, maintain body temperature, and protect your nerves.Recommended Daily Intake 20-35% of daily calories
20Fats Unsaturated Fat aka “Good Fat” Saturated Fats aka “Bad Fat” Important for cardiovascular health & can help fight heart diseaseFound in plant productsMonounsaturated & Polyunsaturated fatsMono: olive oil, peanuts, and canola oilPoly: safflower, corn and soybean oil, and seafoodSaturated Fats aka “Bad Fat”Too much can lead to cardiovascular diseaseSolid at room temperatureFound in animal fats, lard, and dairy products
21Journal – read “Reasons Struggling with Weight” What does the Article Give Advice/Info on About…? Day 2Liquid Calories…?Stress…?Portion Sizes…?Coping with Emotions…?Skipping Breakfast…?
22ProteinsProteins most important function is their role in the growth and repair of your body’s tissuesGreat sources: meats, eggs, poultry, milk, milk products, nuts, beans, peas, and lentils.Recommended Daily Intake 10-35% of daily calories
23Proteins Proteins are made up of amino acids There are 20 different amino acids; 9 are essential, meaning you must get them in your diet, the other 11 your body can manufacture from your dietComplete Proteins: contain all 9 essential amino acidsMeats & fishIncomplete Proteins: Lacks 1 or more of the essential amino acidsPlant sources, such as beansEnd Day 1 Notes
24VitaminsVitamins do not provide energy, but they help with various processes and chemical reactions in the bodyFat-soluble vitamins: dissolve in fatVitamins A, D, E, & KOccur in vegetable oils, liver, eggs and certain vegetablesCan be stored by the body in fat
25Vitamins Water-soluble vitamins: dissolve in water Vitamin C and all B vitaminsOccur in fruits, vegetables and other sourcesCan not be stored by the body, therefore it is important to eat foods that supply them every dayAntioxidants: Help protect healthy cells from the damage caused by normal aging processes and certain cancersVitamin C & E are most powerful antioxidantsBerries, broccoli, tomatoes, whole grains, seeds, nuts and peanut butter
26MineralsFlax seed contains phosphorusMinerals do not provide energy, but they perform a wide variety of functions within your body and are essential for good healthSignificant amounts: Calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, chlorine and sulfur are need in significant amountsTrace amounts: Iron, fluorine, iodine, copper, and zinc
27Minerals Calcium Potassium Iron Sodium Function: helps build and maintain bones & teethSource: milk, dark leafy greens, legumes(alfalfa, peas, beans, lentils, soy, and peanuts)PotassiumFunction: helps maintain water balance and make proteinSource: vegetables, fruits, meat, poultry and fishIronFunction: necessary for healthy red blood cellsSource: red meat, seafood, legumes, fortified cerealsSodiumFunction: helps maintain water balance, heart and nerve functionSource: table salt, processed foods, soy sauce
28Water About 65% of your body weight is water Water does not provide energy, but is essential for all life processes, including energy productionWater is also important because:Makes up a basic part of bloodHelps with waste removalRegulates body temperatureCushions spinal cord and joints
29WaterFemales, years old: need at least ounce cups of waterMales, years old: need at least ounce cups of waterWater can be consumed in fruits, vegetables, juices
30Water Dehydration: a serious reduction in body’s water content Symptoms: weakness, rapid breathing, a weak heart beatDrinks that contain caffeine-coffee, tea and soda- contribute to the amount of water your body excretes, so avoid these beverages
31“Choose My Plate”Choose My Plate is based on an individual’s age, sex, and activity levelChoosemyplate.gov
33Dietary Guidelines 2010 Balancing Calories Foods to Increase ●Enjoy your food, but eat less. ●Avoid oversized portions. Foods to Increase ●Make half your plate fruits and vegetables. ●Make at least half your grains whole grains. ●Switch to fat-free or low-fat (1%) milk. Foods to Reduce ●Compare sodium in foods like soup, bread, and frozen meals ― and choose the foods with lower numbers. ●Drink water instead of sugary drinks.
34The New Food Guide Plate has 5 food Sections… VegetablesGrainsFruitsProteinsDairy
35Remember to eat a variety of vegetables. Any vegetable or 100% vegetable juice counts as a member of the vegetable group.Vegetables can be:raw or cookedfresh or frozendriedRemember to eat a variety of vegetables.
37Any food made from: wheat, rice, oats, Any food made from: wheat, rice, oats, cornmeal, barley, or other cereal grain.Whole grains contain the entire grain kernel.Refined grains have been milled, which removes the bran and germ from the grain.This improves the texture and shelf-life, but removes the fiber, iron, and B vitamins from the final grain product.
38Grains brown rice oatmeal popcorn tortillas couscous grits pasta pita breadwhole wheat breadpretzelsquinoa
39Any fruit or 100% fruit juice counts as part of the fruit group. Fruits can be:freshcannedfrozendriedEat different colored fruits to add variety to your diet and limit fruit juices.
40Fruits apples avocados bananas blueberries cherries lemons grapes watermelonorangesnectarinespeacheslimesplumspineapplepapayaguava
41All foods made from meat, poultry, seafood, beans and peas, eggs, processed soy products, nuts, and seeds are considered part of the protein group. Beans and peas are also part of the Vegetable Group.Most meat and poultry/chicken choices should be lean or low-fat.Fish, nuts, and seeds contain healthy oils, so choose them frequently.
42Protein Group lean cuts of beef lean cuts of pork chicken turkey eggs almondspeanutsGarbanzo beanslentilslean ground beeflean ground porksalmonhalibuttunaswordfishshrimpscallopscrab
43Milk is a good source of calcium, vitamin D, and riboflavin. Foods made from milk that have little to no calcium, such as cream cheese, cream, and butter, are not. Calcium-fortified soymilk (soy beverage) is also part of the Dairy Group. Try to choose milk group choices that are:fat-freelow-fat
45THERE IS NO RECOMMENDED DAILY AMOUNT! Oils are fats that are liquid at room temperature.Oils come from many different plants and from fish.Oils are generally high in monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats. These fats are healthy.Consumes most of fats from fish, nuts and vegetable oilsLimit solid fats, such as butter, stick margarine, shortening & lardTHERE IS NO RECOMMENDED DAILY AMOUNT!
46Recommendation: Use sparingly Oilscanola oilcorn oilcottonseed oilolive oilsafflower oilsoybean oilmayonnaisesalad dressingssoft tub margarinessome fishSunflower oilRecommendation: Use sparingly
47Physical activity simply means to move the body so it uses energy. For health benefits, physical activity should be moderate to vigorous for at least minutes a day.Only moderate and vigorous intensity activities count toward meeting your physical activity needs. With vigorous activities, you get similar health benefits in half the time it takes you with moderate ones. You can replace some or all of your moderate activity with vigorous activity.
49The Dietary Guidelines for Americans Day 3The Dietary Guidelines for AmericansThe Dietary Guidelines provide information about how to make smart food choices, balance food intake with physical activity, get the most nutrition out of the calories you consume, and handle food safely
50Making smart food choices– 2010 Guidelines Eat a wide variety of foodsInclude whole-grains, vegetables and fruits which are rich in complex carbohydrates and fiberChoose low-fat & fat-free milk products which provide calcium, which is needed to prevent bone loss; and help keep cholesterol down and reduce your risk for heart disease
51Get the Most Nutrition Out of those Calories!!! Choose foods that are nutrient denseNutrient-dense foods contain lots of vitamins and minerals relative to the number of caloriesNutrient-dense foods are low in saturated fat, trans fat, added sugar, and saltExamples: lean meats, fish, poultry, & legumes(alfalfa, peas, beans, lentils, soy, and peanuts)
52Handle Food SafelyPrevent food-borne illnesses by following these stepsKeep your hands and surfaces that come in contact with food cleanSeparate raw and cook foods while preparing or storing themCook meat, poultry, and fish to safe internal temperaturesIf food is perishable, chill it right awayThaw foods in the refrigerator, not on the counter
53Using the Food Guidelines: For Each Meal… Breakfast: Don’t skip breakfast; choose whole-grain cereals, low fat milk or yogurt. Limit pastries, eggs, and bacon “moderation”Lunch: focus on whole grains, fruit, and vegetables. Use mustard or ketchup instead of mayo. Try low-fat cheese on pizzaDinner: Trim excess fat from meats. Instead of fried meats or fish, try them grilled. Choose low-fat dressing, and limit butter.
54Using the Food Guidelines: Snacks Choose foods with high nutrient densityTry satisfying your sweet tooth with fruit instead of cookiesMake a whole-grain bagel, not a donut, your after-school treatWhen you go to the movies, choose unbuttered popcorn
55Using the Food Guidelines: Eating Out Substitute low-fat milk, water, or fruit juice for shakes and soft drinksSelect the salad bar or broth-based soups in place of fries or onion rings, but go easy on the dressings, cheese, bacon bits, and croutonsChoose a items that are grilled, steamed or broiled; not friedAsk your server to put half of your meal in a to-go container at the beginning of your meal
56Media influences on our food choices How does the media influence your food choices? What types of advertisements do they use to persuade you to buy their products?
57Food Labels Wks # 5 Page 222 # 8 Page 203-204 & 207 Sodium = no more than 2,400 mg per day (compare with your product type…?)Cholesterol:Low in < 5% DVHigh in > 20% DV
59Fill in the ________. 1. “I’m _____ it.” 2. “Melt in your ____ not in your ______.”3. “Does a ____ ______. ”4. “We do ______ right”5. “Better ______ better pizza”6. “Think _____ the bun.”7. “ Kids_________, mother ______.”8. “Betcha you can’t eat just ____”9. “Make _____ Yours”10.“Not to heavy, not to lite, its just ______.”
60Fill in the BLANK “I’m Lovin’ it” -McDonalds “Melt in your Mouth not in your Hand” -M and M’s“Does a Body Good” -Milk“We do Chicken right” KFC“Better Ingredients better pizza” -Papa Johns“Think Outside the bun” Taco Bell“ Kids Tested, mother Approved” -KIXX“Betcha you can’t eat just One” -Lays“Make Herr’s Yours” Herr’s Potato Chips“Not to heavy, not to lite, its just Right” -Kellogg’s
61How much do I need: Examples Amounts of essential nutrients varies for all humansOur needs are based on:AgeSexGrowth StatusBody SizeGenetic TraitsPresence of ConditionExamplesPregnancyBreast feedingIllnessesDrug UseExposure of Environmental Contaminants
62Malnutrition and Diseases Means poor nutritionImproper, insufficient or over-nutritionLack of sufficient nutrients to maintain healthy body functionsLack of calories, protein, vitamins, or trace minerals
63What are some health risks associated with a poor diet? CancerHeart DiseaseObesityDiabetes & HypoglycemiaOsteoporosis
64Diet & CancerTo reduce the risk of developing cancer, practice the following dietary guidelines:Avoid ObesityEat several servings and a variety of fruits and vegetables each dayEat fiber-rich foods, such as whole grain cereals, legumes, vegetables and fruitsLimit saturated fat intakeLimit consumption of foods that are smoked or saltedDo not drink alcohol as a teenager
65Diet & Cardiovascular Disease Limit saturated fat intake and foods high in cholesterolIncrease your intake of foods and drinks that contain antioxidantsLimit your intake of sodiumBody only need 2400mg/day
66Diet & ObesityBody weight that is 20 percent or more than desirable body weightAvailability of inexpensive, energy dense, and nutrient poor foods has contributed to the rising numbers of obese children, teenagers and adultsProblems associated with obesity:skeletal problemsincrease in heart rate and blood pressureincreased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, high blood pressure, diabetes, and certain types of cancer
67DiabetesDiabetes: a disease in which the body produces little or no insulinInsulin: a hormone that regulates the blood sugar level.Type 1: Insulin dependent, usually affects younger peopleType 2: Non-insulin dependent, usually affects older people, treated with diet and exerciseSymptoms: feeling unwell, tired, excessive thirst, frequent urination
68Hypoglycemiaa condition in which the pancreas produces too much insulin, causing the blood sugar level to be lowNot from diet- exercise -- Born with- geneticSymptoms:Double Vision or blurry visionFast or pounding heartbeatFeeling cranky or acting aggressiveFeeling nervousHeadacheHungerShaking or tremblingSleeping troubleSweatingTingling or numbness of the skinTiredness or weaknessUnclear thinking
69Diet & Osteoporosis Osteoporosis: a decrease in the bone density Females are 10x more likely to have severe osteoporosis than are menDeficiency in calcium, increases the risk for osteoporosis
70Nutrition & your health Think of your body as a machineLifestyle exerts the strongest overall influence on health and longevityBehaviors that constitute our lifestyle: diet, smoking, illicit drugs, excessive drinking, level of physical activity, psychological stress and sleepWE CAN CONTROL ALL OF THE ABOVEEnd Day 4
71Journal “When the Mirror Lies” What is BDD?How does BDD affect ones life on a daily basis?Where can you go for more info or help?
72Eating DisordersA mental disorder that reveals itself through abnormal behaviors related to food. Eating disorders are more than just food; they are about emotions, thoughts and attitudes
73Warm-up Fact or Myth: Eating disorders affect only females. Myth: Eating disorders affect females more than males, but males do develop eating disorders. Because of this myth, males are less likely to seek help for an eating disorder.What factors other than gender might keep someone from seeking help for an eating disorder?
74Body ImageBody image is the perception a person has of his or her body appearanceDove CommercialsEvolutionBeauty PressureKilling us SoftlyKilling us Softly full DocPhotoSHop
75Anorexia NervosaA person with anorexia nervosa does not eat enough food to maintain a healthy weight.Possible CausesLack of chemical that regulates moodLow self-esteem or desire to please othersHistory of troubled relationships
76Anorexia Nervosa Symptoms include: Health risks weight loss, slowed heart & breathing rates, dry skin, lowered body temperature, and growth of fine body hair.Loss of menstrual period in females.Health risksStarve to deathLack of essential minerals can cause heart to stop
78Anorexia Nervosa: Treatment People with anorexia usually deny their problem and need encouragement to get helpDoctors, nurses and dietitians work together to stop weight loss and change the person’s eating habitsMental health work to address underlying emotional problems
79Journal – Day 2Would you consider plastic surgery or other drastic steps to enhance your appearance? Why or why not?How do we(society) & you hinder or hurt others in relation to body image…ie: comments, stress importance of thingsHow can you/we help make our society’s body image better? What will YOU DO?!
80BulimiaPeople who have bulimia go on uncontrolled eating binges followed by purging, or removing, the food from their bodies. They purge the food by making themselves vomit or by using laxatives.Most people with bulimia maintain their weight within their normal rangePossible causes: same as anorexia, plusPurge because they feel better emotionallyPurge because they are concerned about weight gain
81Bulimia Possible signs of Bulimia Unable to control eating binges Eating too much food too quicklyEating in privateCycles of weight gain and lossBathroom visits right after eatingHoarding or storing food
82BulimiaHealth risksDehydration, kidney damage, and lack of necessary vitamins and mineralsStomach acid in vomit irritates the throat and erodes the enamel from teethDepression and risk of suicide
84BulimiaTreatmentPeople with bulimia are aware of their problem, but are unable to control their behavior. Often ashamed to seek help.Mental health professionals, dentists, and team of doctors
85Binge Eating DisorderAn eating disorder in which a personal regularly has an uncontrollable urge to eat large amounts of food, but without purgingPeople with binge eating disorder cannot stop eating even when they are full.They may intend to eat two slices of bread and end up eating the entire loaf of bread
86Binge Eating Disorder Possible Causes: Health Risk: Eat to avoid dealing with difficult emotions, such as anger, or with stressful situationsUse food to provide temporary reliefBinges can lead to depression and guiltHealth Risk:Excess weight gain & unhealthy dietingGreater risk for diabetes & high blood pressure
87Binge Eating Disorder Treatment Learn how to control their eating Eat slowly and deliberatelyAddress underlying emotional issues
88Eating Disorders and Sports Some athletes are at risk for an eating disorder because their sport has rules about weight or are based on body appearanceName some sports where athletes may be at risk for developing an eating disorder and Why?
89Body Dysmorphic Disorder A psychological condition in which a person’s dissatisfaction with how he or she looks consumes his or her daily lifeWhen the Mirror Lies by Natalia Sylvester