Nutrition Study of what people eat and of eating habits and how these affect their health
The Foods You Choose How do these factors influence your decisions? Personal Preferences Cultural Background Time and Convenience Friends The Media
Reading a Food Label Food Label Panel of nutrition information required on all processed foods regulated by the Food and Drug Administration Nutrition Facts Title of information panel that is required on most foods that is required on most foods
Serving Size Serving Size: is the listing of food that is considered a serving Provided in familiar units, such as cups or pieces, followed by the metric amount, e.g., the number of grams Serving per container: listing of number of servings in container or package
Calories Calories: number of calories in 1 serving Calories provide a measure of how much energy you get from a serving of the food. The General Guide to Calories provides a general reference for calories when you look at a Nutrition Facts label. This guide is based on a 2,000 calorie diet.
Look at Fat, Cholesterol, & Sodium per serving % Daily Value: Based on 2000 calorie diet Eating too much fat, saturated fat, trans fat, cholesterol, or sodium may increase your risk of certain chronic diseases, like heart disease, some cancers, or high blood pressure.
Daily Value % Daily Values 5% or less is LOW 20% or more is HIGH
Fiber, Vitamins, & Minerals Dietary Fiber: Aim for 25g/day Vitamins and Minerals: Aim for 100% of DV through a wide variety of foods
Food Labels Ingredients listing: list of ingredients in a food. The ingredients are listed in order of quantity in food, the most to least. Food additives: substances intentionally added to food Enriched food: nutrients lost during processing are added back into food
Food Labels: Nutrient and Health Claims …Free Fat free: contains less than 0.5 g fat Sugar free: contains less than 0.5 g sugars Low in… Low in calories: contains less than 40 calories Low in sodium: contains less than 140 mg of sodium High in… High in Vitamin C: one serving provides 20% or more of the DV of vitamin C
Food Labels: Nutrient and Health Claims Light Contains 50% less fat or at least 1/3 fewer calories then regular version of product Excellent source of… Excellent source of calcium: one serving provides 20% or more of the DV for calcium May reduce your risk of heart disease Can appear on fiber containing grain products, fruits, and vegetables that are also low in saturated fats and cholesterol
Nutrients Nutrients are substances that the body needs to regulate bodily functions, promote growth, repair body tissues, and obtain energy.
Energy Nutrients Why do we need energy? Your body needs energy for everything you do: running, playing an instrument, even sleeping. You need energy to maintain your body temperature and keep your heart beating Energy nutrients provide calories Energy nutrients include carbohydrates, proteins and fats Calorie: unit for the amount of energy released when nutrients are broken down
Energy Nutrients: Carbohydrates Recommended daily intake: 45-65% of daily calories Two Types: Simple Complex
Simple & Complex Carbohydrates Simple Carbohydrates Sugars that naturally occur in fruits, vegetables and milk Added sugars to manufactured foods such as cookies, candies, soft drinks Complex Carbohydrates Starches, found in plant foods, such as potatoes, grains, rice, oats, corn, and wheat products Complex carbohydrates take longer for your body to metabolize than simple carbohydrates
Carbohydrates Fiber: a type of complex carbohydrate that can not be broken down by the body Fiber passes through your body without being digested Benefits of a high fiber diet include Helps prevent constipation May reduce risk of colon cancer May help prevent heart disease Fiber is found in whole grain breads and cereals, vegetables, fruits, nuts, beans and seeds
Fats Fats supply your body with energy, form your cells, maintain body temperature, and protect your nerves. Recommended Daily Intake 20-35% of daily calories
Fats Unsaturated Fat aka “Good Fat” Important for cardiovascular health & can help fight heart disease Found in plant products Monounsaturated & Polyunsaturated fats Mono: olive oil, peanuts, and canola oil Poly: safflower, corn and soybean oil, and seafood Saturated Fats aka “Bad Fat” Too much can lead to cardiovascular disease Solid at room temperature Found in animal fats, lard, and dairy products
Journal – read “Reasons Struggling with Weight” What does the Article Give Advice/Info on About…? 1.Liquid Calories…? 2.Stress…? 3.Portion Sizes…? 4.Coping with Emotions…? 5.Skipping Breakfast…? Day 2
Proteins Proteins most important function is their role in the growth and repair of your body’s tissues Great sources: meats, eggs, poultry, milk, milk products, nuts, beans, peas, and lentils. Recommended Daily Intake 10-35% of daily calories
Proteins Proteins are made up of amino acids There are 20 different amino acids; 9 are essential, meaning you must get them in your diet, the other 11 your body can manufacture from your diet Complete Proteins: contain all 9 essential amino acids Meats & fish Incomplete Proteins: Lacks 1 or more of the essential amino acids Plant sources, such as beans End Day 1 Notes
Vitamins Vitamins do not provide energy, but they help with various processes and chemical reactions in the body Fat-soluble vitamins: dissolve in fat Vitamins A, D, E, & K Occur in vegetable oils, liver, eggs and certain vegetables Can be stored by the body in fat
Vitamins Water-soluble vitamins: dissolve in water Vitamin C and all B vitamins Occur in fruits, vegetables and other sources Can not be stored by the body, therefore it is important to eat foods that supply them every day Antioxidants: Help protect healthy cells from the damage caused by normal aging processes and certain cancers Vitamin C & E are most powerful antioxidants Berries, broccoli, tomatoes, whole grains, seeds, nuts and peanut butter
Minerals Minerals do not provide energy, but they perform a wide variety of functions within your body and are essential for good health Significant amounts: Calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, chlorine and sulfur are need in significant amounts Trace amounts: Iron, fluorine, iodine, copper, and zinc phosphorus Flax seed contains phosphorus
Minerals Calcium Function: helps build and maintain bones & teeth Source: milk, dark leafy greens, legumes (alfalfa, peas, beans, lentils, soy, and peanuts) (alfalfa, peas, beans, lentils, soy, and peanuts)alfalfapeasbeanslentilssoypeanutsalfalfapeasbeanslentilssoypeanuts Potassium Function: helps maintain water balance and make protein Source: vegetables, fruits, meat, poultry and fish Iron Function: necessary for healthy red blood cells Source: red meat, seafood, legumes, fortified cereals Sodium Function: helps maintain water balance, heart and nerve function Source: table salt, processed foods, soy sauce
Water About 65% of your body weight is water Water does not provide energy, but is essential for all life processes, including energy production Water is also important because: Makes up a basic part of blood Helps with waste removal Regulates body temperature Cushions spinal cord and joints
Water Females, 14-18 years old: need at least 10- 8 ounce cups of water Males, 14-18 years old: need at least 14- 8 ounce cups of water Water can be consumed in fruits, vegetables, juices
Water Dehydration: a serious reduction in body’s water content Symptoms: weakness, rapid breathing, a weak heart beat Drinks that contain caffeine-coffee, tea and soda- contribute to the amount of water your body excretes, so avoid these beverages
“Choose My Plate” Choose My Plate is based on an individual’s age, sex, and activity level Choosemyplate.gov
Dietary Guidelines 2010 Balancing Calories Balancing Calories ●Enjoy your food, but eat less. ●Enjoy your food, but eat less. ●Avoid oversized portions. ●Avoid oversized portions. Foods to Increase Foods to Increase ●Make half your plate fruits and vegetables. ●Make half your plate fruits and vegetables. ●Make at least half your grains whole grains. ●Make at least half your grains whole grains. ●Switch to fat-free or low-fat (1%) milk. ●Switch to fat-free or low-fat (1%) milk. Foods to Reduce Foods to Reduce ●Compare sodium in foods like soup, bread, and frozen meals ― and choose the foods with lower numbers. ●Compare sodium in foods like soup, bread, and frozen meals ― and choose the foods with lower numbers. ●Drink water instead of sugary drinks. ●Drink water instead of sugary drinks.
The New Food Guide Plate has 5 food Sections… VegetablesGrainsFruitsProteinsDairy
Any vegetable or 100% vegetable juice counts as a member of the vegetable group. Vegetables can be: raw or cooked fresh or frozen dried Remember to eat a variety of vegetables.
Any food made from: wheat, rice, oats, cornmeal, barley, or other cereal grain. Whole grains contain the entire grain kernel. Refined grains have been milled, which removes the bran and germ from the grain. This improves the texture and shelf-life, but removes the fiber, iron, and B vitamins from the final grain product.
All foods made from meat, poultry, seafood, beans and peas, eggs, processed soy products, nuts, and seeds are considered part of the protein group. Beans and peas are also part of the Vegetable Group. Most meat and poultry/chicken choices should be lean or low-fat. Fish, nuts, and seeds contain healthy oils, so choose them frequently.
Milk is a good source of calcium, vitamin D, and riboflavin. Foods made from milk that have little to no calcium, such as cream cheese, cream, and butter, are not. Calcium-fortified soymilk (soy beverage) is also part of the Dairy Group. Try to choose milk group choices that are: fat-free low-fat
Oils are fats that are liquid at room temperature. Oils come from many different plants and from fish. Oils are generally high in monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats. These fats are healthy. Consumes most of fats from fish, nuts and vegetable oils Limit solid fats, such as butter, stick margarine, shortening & lard THERE IS NO RECOMMENDED DAILY AMOUNT!
Oils canola oil corn oil cottonseed oil olive oil safflower oil soybean oil mayonnaise salad dressings soft tub margarines some fish Sunflower oil Recommendation: Use sparingly
Physical activity simply means to move the body so it uses energy. For health benefits, physical activity should be moderate to vigorous for at least 30-60 minutes a day. Only moderate and vigorous intensity activities count toward meeting your physical activity needs. With vigorous activities, you get similar health benefits in half the time it takes you with moderate ones. You can replace some or all of your moderate activity with vigorous activity.
Physical Activities Moderate: walking briskly hiking gardening dancing golfing bicycling weight training Vigorous: running swimming aerobics competitive basketball walking fast weight lifting End Day 2
The Dietary Guidelines for Americans The Dietary Guidelines provide information about how to make smart food choices, balance food intake with physical activity, get the most nutrition out of the calories you consume, and handle food safely Day 3
Making smart food choices– 2010 Guidelines Eat a wide variety of foods Include whole-grains, vegetables and fruits which are rich in complex carbohydrates and fiber Choose low-fat & fat-free milk products which provide calcium, which is needed to prevent bone loss; and help keep cholesterol down and reduce your risk for heart disease
Get the Most Nutrition Out of those Calories!!! Choose foods that are nutrient dense Nutrient-dense foods contain lots of vitamins and minerals relative to the number of calories Nutrient-dense foods are low in saturated fat, trans fat, added sugar, and salt Examples: lean meats, fish, poultry, & legumes ( alfalfa, peas, beans, lentils, soy, and peanuts) ( alfalfa, peas, beans, lentils, soy, and peanuts) alfalfapeasbeanslentilssoypeanuts alfalfapeasbeanslentilssoypeanuts
Handle Food Safely Prevent food-borne illnesses by following these steps Keep your hands and surfaces that come in contact with food clean Separate raw and cook foods while preparing or storing them Cook meat, poultry, and fish to safe internal temperatures If food is perishable, chill it right away Thaw foods in the refrigerator, not on the counter
Using the Food Guidelines: For Each Meal… Breakfast: Don’t skip breakfast; choose whole- grain cereals, low fat milk or yogurt. Limit pastries, eggs, and bacon “moderation” Lunch: focus on whole grains, fruit, and vegetables. Use mustard or ketchup instead of mayo. Try low-fat cheese on pizza Dinner: Trim excess fat from meats. Instead of fried meats or fish, try them grilled. Choose low-fat dressing, and limit butter.
Using the Food Guidelines: Snacks Choose foods with high nutrient density Try satisfying your sweet tooth with fruit instead of cookies Make a whole-grain bagel, not a donut, your after-school treat When you go to the movies, choose unbuttered popcorn
Using the Food Guidelines: Eating Out Substitute low-fat milk, water, or fruit juice for shakes and soft drinks Select the salad bar or broth-based soups in place of fries or onion rings, but go easy on the dressings, cheese, bacon bits, and croutons Choose a items that are grilled, steamed or broiled; not fried Ask your server to put half of your meal in a to- go container at the beginning of your meal
Media influences on our food choices How does the media influence your food choices? What types of advertisements do they use to persuade you to buy their products?
Food Labels Wks # 5 Page 222 # 8 Page 203-204 & 207 207 Sodium = no more than 2,400 mg per day (compare with your product type…?) Cholesterol: Low in < 5% DV High in > 20% DV
1. “I’m _____ it.” 2. “Melt in your ____ not in your ______.” 3. “Does a ____ ______. ” 4. “We do ______ right” 5. “Better ______ better pizza” 6. “Think _____ the bun.” 7. “ Kids_________, mother ______.” 8. “Betcha you can’t eat just ____” 9. “Make _____ Yours” 10.“Not to heavy, not to lite, its just ______.” Fill in the ________.
1.“I’m Lovin’ it” -McDonalds 2.“Melt in your Mouth not in your Hand”-M and M’s 3.“Does a Body Good”-Milk 4.“We do Chicken right” -KFC 5.“Better Ingredients better pizza” -Papa Johns 6.“Think Outside the bun” -Taco Bell 7.“ Kids Tested, mother Approved” -KIXX 8.“Betcha you can’t eat just One” -Lays 9.“Make Herr’s Yours” -Herr’s Potato Chips 10.“Not to heavy, not to lite, its just Right” -Kellogg’s Fill in the BLANK
How much do I need: Amounts of essential nutrients varies for all humans Our needs are based on: Age Sex Growth Status Body Size Genetic Traits Presence of Condition Examples Pregnancy Breast feeding Illnesses Drug Use Exposure of Environmental Contaminants
Malnutrition and Diseases Means poor nutrition Improper, insufficient or over-nutrition Lack of sufficient nutrients to maintain healthy body functions Lack of calories, protein, vitamins, or trace minerals
What are some health risks associated with a poor diet? Cancer Heart Disease Obesity Diabetes & Hypoglycemia Osteoporosis
Diet & Cancer To reduce the risk of developing cancer, practice the following dietary guidelines: Avoid Obesity Eat several servings and a variety of fruits and vegetables each day Eat fiber-rich foods, such as whole grain cereals, legumes, vegetables and fruits Limit saturated fat intake Limit consumption of foods that are smoked or salted Do not drink alcohol as a teenager
Diet & Cardiovascular Disease Limit saturated fat intake and foods high in cholesterol Increase your intake of foods and drinks that contain antioxidants Limit your intake of sodium Body only need 2400mg/day
Diet & Obesity Body weight that is 20 percent or more than desirable body weight Availability of inexpensive, energy dense, and nutrient poor foods has contributed to the rising numbers of obese children, teenagers and adults Problems associated with obesity: 1.skeletal problems 2.increase in heart rate and blood pressure 3.increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, high blood pressure, diabetes, and certain types of cancer
Diabetes Diabetes: a disease in which the body produces little or no insulin Insulin: a hormone that regulates the blood sugar level. Type 1: Insulin dependent, usually affects younger people Type 2: Non-insulin dependent, usually affects older people, treated with diet and exercise Symptoms: feeling unwell, tired, excessive thirst, frequent urination
Hypoglycemia Hypoglycemia a condition in which the pancreas produces too much insulin, causing the blood sugar level to be low Not from diet- exercise -- Born with- genetic Symptoms: Double Vision or blurry vision Fast or pounding heartbeat Feeling cranky or acting aggressive Feeling nervous Headache Hunger Shaking or trembling Sleeping trouble Sweating Tingling or numbness of the skin Tiredness or weakness Unclear thinking
Diet & Osteoporosis Osteoporosis: a decrease in the bone density a decrease in the bone density Females are 10x more likely to have severe osteoporosis than are men Deficiency in calcium, increases the risk for osteoporosis
Nutrition & your health Think of your body as a machine Lifestyle exerts the strongest overall influence on health and longevity Behaviors that constitute our lifestyle: diet, smoking, illicit drugs, excessive drinking, level of physical activity, psychological stress and sleep WE CAN CONTROL ALL OF THE ABOVE End Day 4
Journal “When the Mirror Lies” What is BDD? How does BDD affect ones life on a daily basis? Where can you go for more info or help?
Eating Disorders A mental disorder that reveals itself through abnormal behaviors related to food. Eating disorders are more than just food; they are about emotions, thoughts and attitudes
Warm-up Fact or Myth: Eating disorders affect only females. Myth: Eating disorders affect females more than males, but males do develop eating disorders. Because of this myth, males are less likely to seek help for an eating disorder. What factors other than gender might keep someone from seeking help for an eating disorder?
Body Image Body image is the perception a person has of his or her body appearance Dove Commercials Evolution Evolution Beauty Pressure Beauty Pressure Beauty Pressure Killing us Softly Killing us Softly Killing us Softly Killing us Softly full Doc Killing us Softly full Doc Killing us Softly full Doc PhotoSHop PhotoSHop
Anorexia Nervosa A person with anorexia nervosa does not eat enough food to maintain a healthy weight. Possible Causes Lack of chemical that regulates mood Low self-esteem or desire to please others History of troubled relationships
Anorexia Nervosa Symptoms include: weight loss, slowed heart & breathing rates, dry skin, lowered body temperature, and growth of fine body hair. Loss of menstrual period in females. Health risks Starve to death Lack of essential minerals can cause heart to stop
Anorexia Nervosa: Treatment People with anorexia usually deny their problem and need encouragement to get help Doctors, nurses and dietitians work together to stop weight loss and change the person’s eating habits Mental health work to address underlying emotional problems
Journal – Day 2 Would you consider plastic surgery or other drastic steps to enhance your appearance? Why or why not? How do we(society) & you hinder or hurt others in relation to body image… ie: comments, stress importance of things How can you/we help make our society’s body image better? What will YOU DO?!
Bulimia People who have bulimia go on uncontrolled eating binges followed by purging, or removing, the food from their bodies. They purge the food by making themselves vomit or by using laxatives. Most people with bulimia maintain their weight within their normal range Possible causes: same as anorexia, plus Purge because they feel better emotionally Purge because they are concerned about weight gain
Bulimia Possible signs of Bulimia Unable to control eating binges Eating too much food too quickly Eating in private Cycles of weight gain and loss Bathroom visits right after eating Hoarding or storing food
Bulimia Health risks Dehydration, kidney damage, and lack of necessary vitamins and minerals Stomach acid in vomit irritates the throat and erodes the enamel from teeth Depression and risk of suicide
Bulimia Treatment People with bulimia are aware of their problem, but are unable to control their behavior. Often ashamed to seek help. Mental health professionals, dentists, and team of doctors
Binge Eating Disorder An eating disorder in which a personal regularly has an uncontrollable urge to eat large amounts of food, but without purging People with binge eating disorder cannot stop eating even when they are full. They may intend to eat two slices of bread and end up eating the entire loaf of bread
Binge Eating Disorder Possible Causes: Eat to avoid dealing with difficult emotions, such as anger, or with stressful situations Use food to provide temporary relief Binges can lead to depression and guilt Health Risk: Excess weight gain & unhealthy dieting Greater risk for diabetes & high blood pressure
Binge Eating Disorder Treatment Learn how to control their eating Eat slowly and deliberately Address underlying emotional issues
Eating Disorders and Sports Some athletes are at risk for an eating disorder because their sport has rules about weight or are based on body appearance Name some sports where athletes may be at risk for developing an eating disorder and Why?
Body Dysmorphic Disorder A psychological condition in which a person’s dissatisfaction with how he or she looks consumes his or her daily life When the Mirror Lies by Natalia Sylvester