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Foodborne illness Foodborne illness OR OR Foodborne disease Foodborne disease OR OR Food poisoning Food poisoning.

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Presentation on theme: "Foodborne illness Foodborne illness OR OR Foodborne disease Foodborne disease OR OR Food poisoning Food poisoning."— Presentation transcript:

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4 Foodborne illness Foodborne illness OR OR Foodborne disease Foodborne disease OR OR Food poisoning Food poisoning

5 is any illness resulting from the Ingestion of food or Drink. is any illness resulting from the Ingestion of food or Drink.illness Contaminated with Contaminated with Living bacteria or Living bacteria or Other toxins or Other toxins or Inorganic chemical Inorganic chemical substances substances & poisons from & poisons from Plants & animals Plants & animals

6 Types of food poisoning A. Bacterial Food poisoning B. Non- Bacterial Food poisoning

7 A. Bacterial Food poisoning Food infection Food infection refers to the presence of bacteria or other microbes which infect the body after consumption. refers to the presence of bacteria or other microbes which infect the body after consumption. Food intoxication Food intoxication refers to the ingestion of toxins contained within the food, including bacterially produced exotoxins refers to the ingestion of toxins contained within the food, including bacterially produced exotoxins 1. food infection 2. food intoxication 2. food intoxication Bacteria and bacterial toxins

8 B. Non- Bacterial Food poisoning By chemicals:- By chemicals:- E.g:- Arsenic E.g:- Arsenic Cu sulphate Cu sulphate Mercury Mercury Cadmium Cadmium Pesticides Pesticides Sea foods Sea foods Certain plants Certain plants fertilizers fertilizers

9 CAUSES: improper handling, improper handling, preparation, preparation, or food storage. or food storage. large variety of toxins that affect the environment large variety of toxins that affect the environment chemicals chemicals pesticides or medicines in food and pesticides or medicines in food and naturally toxic substances like poisonous mushrooms. naturally toxic substances like poisonous mushrooms. Good hygiene practices Good hygiene practiceshygiene before, before, during, during, & after food preparation & after food preparation can reduce the chances of contracting an illness. can reduce the chances of contracting an illness. During its production Growing, Harvesting, Processing, Storing, Shipping or Preparing

10 Common Food borne Bacteria

11 There is a general consensus in the public health community that There is a general consensus in the public health community that Regular hand-washing is one of the most effective defenses against the spread of foodborne illness. Regular hand-washing is one of the most effective defenses against the spread of foodborne illness.

12 common bacterial food borne pathogens are: Staphylococcus Staphylococcus Streptococcus Streptococcus Streptococcus Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio cholerae Vibrio cholerae Shigella spp. Shigella spp.Shigella Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli Escherichia coli Salmonella Salmonella Others:- Others:- Campylobacter jejuni (periodontitis) Campylobacter jejuni (periodontitis) Campylobacter jejuniperiodontitis Campylobacter jejuniperiodontitis Clostridium perfringens, the "cafeteria germ Clostridium perfringens, the "cafeteria germ Clostridium perfringens Clostridium perfringens

13 Exotoxins Exotoxins In addition to disease caused by direct bacterial infection, some food borne illnesses are caused by exotoxins which are excreted by the cell as the bacterium grows. Exotoxins can produce illness even when the microbes that produced them have been killed. In addition to disease caused by direct bacterial infection, some food borne illnesses are caused by exotoxins which are excreted by the cell as the bacterium grows. Exotoxins can produce illness even when the microbes that produced them have been killed. exotoxinsexcreted exotoxinsexcreted Clostridium botulinum Clostridium botulinum Bacillus cereus Bacillus cereus Bacillus cereus Bacillus cereus

14 Viruses Viruses Hepatitis A Hepatitis A Hepatitis A Hepatitis A Norovirus Norovirus Norovirus Rotavirus Rotavirus Rotavirus

15 Parasites Parasites Protozoa: Protozoa: Protozoa Giardia lamblia Entamoeba histolytica

16 Global Impact has increased the potential likelihood of food contamination. has increased the potential likelihood of food contamination. Many outbreaks of food borne diseases that were once contained within a small community may now take place on global dimensions. may now take place on global dimensions. Rapid globalization of food production & trade In modern times,

17 It is difficult to estimate the global incidence of food borne disease, It is difficult to estimate the global incidence of food borne disease, but it has been reported that in the year 2000 but it has been reported that in the year 2000 about 2.1 million people died from diarrhoeal diseases. about 2.1 million people died from diarrhoeal diseases.

18 Many of these cases have been attributed to contamination of food and drinking water. Many of these cases have been attributed to contamination of food and drinking water. Additionally, diarrhea is a major cause of malnutrition in infants and young children. Additionally, diarrhea is a major cause of malnutrition in infants and young children. Even in industrialized countries, up to 30% of the population of people have been reported to suffer from food borne diseases every year.

19 Temperatures control  Most types of pathogenic bacteria can grow in temperature from 41ºF to 140ºF (5ºC to 60ºC) which called temperatures danger zone (TDZ),  To prevent bacteria from growing, we must set the refrigerator temperature not higher than 39ºF (4ºC).  Refrigerator must not be too full, as Cold air must circulate to keep food safe.

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21 High-risk food Bacteria grow and multiply on some types of food more easily than on others. The types of foods which bacteria prefer include: meat meat poultry poultry dairy products dairy products eggs eggs seafood seafood cooked rice cooked rice cooked pasta cooked pasta prepared salads and pasta salads prepared salads and pasta salads prepared fruit salads prepared fruit salads

22 People at high risk Elderly People Babies Pregnant Women People with Chronic diseases

23 Staphylococcal poisoning Salmonellas poisoning Botulism poisoning Everywhere in Nature Men & Animals skin, Nose & throats skin, Nose & throats Common agent of Boil & pyogenic Infection Cows (Mastitis) involving Milk & milk products - Nature - Poultry - Poultry -Farm Animals -Farm Animals Egg, Egg products, Meat ( shami kebab, Biryani, chicken Tikka) Preserved Foods Home made cheese canned foods (Tin) Vacuum packed food Low acid foods

24 Staphylococcal poisoning ( common Form ) Salmonellas poisoning ( common Form ) Botulism poisoning ( Rare ) But Most serious But Most serious 1. Agent Staphylococcal Aureus Relatively heat stable Resistant- Boiling 30 minutes 1.S.Typhi2.S.ParatyphiOthers: Typhi murium Enteritidis Cholera- suis Clostridium Botulinium A, B, E type Heating C for few minutes 2. source Everywhere in Nature Men & Animals skin, hair, Nose & throats Common agent of Boil & pyogenic Infection Cows (Mastitis) involving Milk & milk products Bakery products, Salads, Macroni. - Nature - Nature - Poultry - Poultry -Farm Animals -Farm Animals Egg, Egg products, Meat ( shami kebab, Biryani, chicken Tikka) Urine & feces of Rats Preserved Foods Home made cheese canned foods ( Tin) vegetables, Fruits & salted fishes, Vacuum packed food Low acid foods 3. Incubation Period 1 – 6 Hours Hours 12 – 36 Hours

25 5. Pathogenesis / Mechanism Toxin performed in Food ( Heat resistant ) Ingested after taking Food Act on Intestine & CNS Causative Org: multiply in Intestine Ac: Enteritis & colitis Exotoxin absorbed from Gut Via Blood— peripheral Nerve synapses—Block release of Acetylcholine 6. Cl / Findings Acute onset of vomiting Abd: cramps & Diarrhea Blood & mucus (If severe) Fever --- Rarely Onset generally sudden With chills, Fever, Nausea, Vomiting Profuse watery Diarrh: (Lasts 2-3 days ) (Lasts 2-3 days ) Mortality About 1% Diplopia, Ptosis, Blurring of vision Muscle weakness Dysphagia, Quadriplegia, Paralysis of Resp: Muscles 7. Treatment B- lactamase PenicillinCephalosporinvancomycinCiproflaxacinChloramphenicol Co trimoxazole AmoxycillinTrimethoprimAntitoxin Guanidine Hcl Active Immunization Resp: support 8.PreventionCleanliness Frequent Hand washing Aseptic Management of Lesions Adequate Food Inspect Septic Animals condemned Septic Food be condemned proper cooking Boiled properly Chopping boards (clean) Adequate Food cooking Proper sterilization Discard swollen cans Staphylococcal Salmonellas Botulism poisoning poisoningpoisoning poisoning poisoning poisoning

26 Staphylococcus aureus  It is commonly found on the skin, hair, noses and throats of people and animals.  It can multiply quickly at room temperature and produce a toxin temperature and produce a toxin that causes Food poisoning Source ;  Salads, macaroni  Bakery products, cream pies,  Milk and dairy products, 27-Apr-1526

27 Salmonella  one of the most common causes of food poisoning.  Symptoms last 4-7 days without treatment.  Salmonella is killed by cooking and pasteurization,  But it can contaminate the food processing area and transmitted to another food item. Source  Raw poultry and eggs  Undercooked poultry and meat 27-Apr-1527

28 Clostridium perfringens  One of the most common spore forming bacteria causing food poisoning. When food prepared in large quantities and kept long time before serving it cause infection When food prepared in large quantities and kept long time before serving it cause infection  IP 6-24 hours  Outbreaks usually linked to institutions (hospitals, school cafeterias, and prisons).  Sources such as Beef and Poultry 27-Apr-1528

29 Bacillus cereus It is type of bacteria that produces toxins. (diarrheal toxin, emetic toxin) (diarrheal toxin, emetic toxin)  IP 1-6 hours Source : Source :  Soil, and in raw, dried and processed foods 29

30 Symptoms of food poisoning

31 General symptoms Fever, chills, malaise, aches, swollen lymph nodes Salmonella typhi, Salmonella typhi, Upper GIT signs Nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea & S. aureus and its toxins S. aureus and its toxins B. cereus and its toxin B. cereus and its toxin 27-Apr-1531

32 Lower GIT signs Lower abdominal cramps & diarrhea : Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium perfringens, Bacillus cereus Bacillus cereus Salmonella, Shigella, Salmonella, Shigella, Neurological signs Visual disturbances, vertigo & paralysis Clostridium botulinum Clostridium botulinum 27-Apr-1532

33 Symptoms Nausea Nausea Abdominal pain Abdominal pain Vomiting Vomiting Diarrhea Diarrhea Gastroenteritis Gastroenteritis Fever Fever Headache Headache Fatigue Fatigue

34 Treatment The main treatment for food poisoning is putting fluids back in the body (rehydration) through an IV and by drinking. The main treatment for food poisoning is putting fluids back in the body (rehydration) through an IV and by drinking. Do not eat solid food while Do not eat solid food while nauseous or vomiting but nauseous or vomiting but drink plenty of fluids. drink plenty of fluids. Anti-vomiting and diarrhea Anti-vomiting and diarrhea medications medications Antibiotics Antibiotics

35 The WHO Golden Rules for Safe Food Preparation 1. Choose foods processed for safety 1. Choose foods processed for safety 2. Cook food thoroughly 2. Cook food thoroughly 3. Eat cooked foods immediately 3. Eat cooked foods immediately 4. Store cooked foods carefully 4. Store cooked foods carefully 5. Reheat cooked foods thoroughly 5. Reheat cooked foods thoroughly 6. Avoid contact between raw foods and cooked foods 6. Avoid contact between raw foods and cooked foods 7. Wash hands repeatedly 7. Wash hands repeatedly 8. Keep all kitchen surfaces meticulously clean 8. Keep all kitchen surfaces meticulously clean 9. Protect foods from insects, rodents, and other animals 9. Protect foods from insects, rodents, and other animals 10. Use safe water 10. Use safe water

36 Safe Preservation of Food Refrigeration Refrigeration Drying Drying Canning (Tin) Canning (Tin) Salting Salting Pickling Pickling Smoking Smoking Chemicals (Sugar, salts, Citric acid, Benzoic acid) Chemicals (Sugar, salts, Citric acid, Benzoic acid)

37 Prevention& Control (A)Food Sanitation: (A)Food Sanitation: 1. Food/ Meat Inspection 1. Food/ Meat Inspection 2. Personal Hygiene 2. Personal Hygiene 3. Medical Inspection of Food handlers. 3. Medical Inspection of Food handlers. 4. Food handling Technique (Golden rules). 4. Food handling Technique (Golden rules). 5. Sanitary improvements. 5. Sanitary improvements. 6. Health Education 6. Health Education (B) Refrigeration (B) Refrigeration 7. Surveillance (Lab: Analysis) 7. Surveillance (Lab: Analysis)

38 1. Keep hands and nails clean We need to: wash hands and nails thoroughly with warm, running water and soap wash hands and nails thoroughly with warm, running water and soap dry hands thoroughly dry hands thoroughly cover cuts and infections cover cuts and infections on hands on hands Strategies to prevent food poisoning

39 When cleaning plates and equipment, we need to: scrape and rinse off surface food scrape and rinse off surface food wash in clean, soapy water wash in clean, soapy water rinse in clean water rinse in clean water air dry where possible air dry where possible if drying immediately, use only a clean, dry towel. if drying immediately, use only a clean, dry towel. Pest control and animals stop pests such as cockroaches and mice coming into the area where food is kept stop pests such as cockroaches and mice coming into the area where food is kept discourage pests by not leaving food or dirty dishes out on the benches discourage pests by not leaving food or dirty dishes out on the benches keep animals out of the kitchen. keep animals out of the kitchen. Keeping the kitchen clean

40 avoid preparing food when sick or feeling unwell avoid preparing food when sick or feeling unwell keep raw meats, poultry and seafood keep raw meats, poultry and seafood separated from cooked food and food to be eaten raw separated from cooked food and food to be eaten raw protect food in the refrigerator by placing in covered protect food in the refrigerator by placing in covered containers or covering with plastic wrap containers or covering with plastic wrap use clean equipment, plates or containers to prevent use clean equipment, plates or containers to prevent contamination of cooked food contamination of cooked food use clean equipment, rather than hands, to pick up food use clean equipment, rather than hands, to pick up food wear clean clothes or a clean apron wear clean clothes or a clean apron wash fruit and vegetables to be wash fruit and vegetables to be eaten raw under running water. eaten raw under running water. Handling food safely

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42 FOOD POISONING PRECAUTIONS (same as in Urdu) Always wash your hands with an antibacterial soap before eating something because food poisoning is mostly caused by germs. Always wash your hands with an antibacterial soap before eating something because food poisoning is mostly caused by germs. Especially wash your hands after using the wash room. This will not only help you prevent liver disorders but you also remain safe from skin infections. Especially wash your hands after using the wash room. This will not only help you prevent liver disorders but you also remain safe from skin infections. Drink mineral water. Drink mineral water. If drinking mineral water isn’t possible, boil the water before you drink it because one reason of food poisoning is polluted water. If drinking mineral water isn’t possible, boil the water before you drink it because one reason of food poisoning is polluted water. Avoid stale food; always eat fresh and hygienic food because stale and unhygienic food can be a cause of liver disorders. Avoid stale food; always eat fresh and hygienic food because stale and unhygienic food can be a cause of liver disorders. Eat fresh fruits and vegetables: always wash the fruit and vegetables before eating because the fruits brought from the market are kept open in polluted areas and they contain a lot of germs. Eat fresh fruits and vegetables: always wash the fruit and vegetables before eating because the fruits brought from the market are kept open in polluted areas and they contain a lot of germs. Always use home frozen ice; avoid using ice brought from the market as this ice is not frozen by filtered water. Always use home frozen ice; avoid using ice brought from the market as this ice is not frozen by filtered water. Spicy and unhygienic bites can ruin your stomach! Avoid them! Spicy and unhygienic bites can ruin your stomach! Avoid them! Do not freeze meat for more than two days. The meat frozen for more than two days not only loses its proteins but is also hazardous for health. Do not freeze meat for more than two days. The meat frozen for more than two days not only loses its proteins but is also hazardous for health. Food poisoning and other stomach disorders are caused due to unhygienic food. Food poisoning and other stomach disorders are caused due to unhygienic food.

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