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© The Association for Dementia Studies Making services more culturally competent: a person-centred approach Dr Karan Jutlla Senior Lecturer Association for Dementia Studies, University of Worcester
© The Association for Dementia Studies Person Centred Dementia Care Professor Tom Kitwood 2
© The Association for Dementia Studies Person centred care fit for VIPS
© The Association for Dementia Studies Person centred care & Personhood …. Person Centred Care are the processes by which service providers maintain the Personhood of those who receive their services….. “Personhood is a standing or status that is bestowed on one human being, by others, in the context of relationship and social being. It implies recognition, respect and trust…..” Kitwood, Dementia Reconsidered 1997
© The Association for Dementia Studies Person Centred Care for BAME communities Represents the guiding principles for what it means to be culturally competent.
© The Association for Dementia Studies Cultural competency Involves more than having an awareness of cultural norms. It is an approach that values diversity and promotes inclusivity It represents a value-based perspective that recognises individuality (Gallegos et al. 2008).
© The Association for Dementia Studies Cultural competency cont… For Gallegos et al. (2008:54) cultural competence refers to ‘the process by which individuals and systems respond respectfully and effectively to people of all cultures, languages, classes, races, ethnic backgrounds, religions, and other diversity factors in a manner that recognises, affirms, and values the worth of individuals, families, and communities and protects and preserves the dignity of each.’
© The Association for Dementia Studies BAME communities International Community: Migration National Community Local Community Family Person
© The Association for Dementia Studies Person-centred care with migrant communities In order to achieve ‘mutually satisfying user/provider relationships’ such people should be regarded as individuals alongside knowledge of the s ss social and political influences on their lives rather than regarding them as members of ‘other’ groups (Mackenzie 2007:76). Promoting inclusivity in existing services
© The Association for Dementia Studies Ethnic identity & cultural diversity Whilst there are similarities across different ethnic communities, there are also differences both within and across communities based on: Religion Language Migration experiences Caste
© The Association for Dementia Studies Caste Castes within the Sikh population in rural Punjab fit into a hierarchy comprising four broad categories. Similar across other South Asian communities (Ballard and Ballard 1979; Kalra 1980): 1.Brahmins and Khatris - high rank priestly class who traditionally acted as warriors to the Gurus. They comprise approximately ten per cent of the rural population of the Punjab. 2.Jats - the ‘landowners’ and ‘farmers’ and comprise approximately 50 per cent of the rural population of the Punjab. 3.Craftsmen and service caste - comprise approximately 15 per cent of the rural population, of whom the Ramgarhias (carpenters) are the largest group. 4.The ‘untouchables’ - comprise approximately 25 per cent.
© The Association for Dementia Studies Cultural Diversity Illustration PunjabEast Africa Caste 1Sikhs Muslims Hindus Sikhs Muslims Hindus 2Sikhs Muslims Hindus Sikhs Muslims Hindus 3Sikhs Muslims Hindus Sikhs Muslims Hindus 4Sikhs Muslims Hindus Sikhs Muslims Hindus e.g. Shared language e.g. Shared social norms
© The Association for Dementia Studies Social & Political Influences Social (community) norms as members of different groups Political influences: understanding migration experiences and what these mean for groups and the individual
© The Association for Dementia Studies Migration and Dementia Key Historical Events SikhMuslimHindu 1947 India 1983 India 1960s UK Others…
© The Association for Dementia Studies Darshan Kaur, aged 49 years, cares for mother ‘Her [mother’s] benefits weren’t covering it so everybody, all the sisters were putting in their little bit so that she can stay in this fantastic home… and there were actually…I think about four, maybe even five carers or nurses whatever... staff... that were Punjabi. But, that was another thing because if...when mom knew this is a lady called... I don’t know... Usha or Parveen or something that she knows that’s not Sikh, that’s Hindu...or in the conversation it would come out... then that would be another thing that she didn’t sort of... it’s almost like...if it’s completely ‘Goreh’ [White people] you know it’s one thing, but it’s… it does play on their mind doesn’t it? you know whether they’re Jat... so you know, you can say that you don’t have those sort of problems… but it’s just in their system really isn’t it? She’s not horrible about it, she wouldn’t... I wouldn’t think she’d...well I’ve never heard her say anything, like insult anybody but... it’s still there...so having Asian staff is not the answer.’
© The Association for Dementia Studies Diversity Diversity within BAME communities Diversity within Asian communities Diversity within one community (i.e. the Sikh community) One size does not fit all
© The Association for Dementia Studies Rani, aged 44 years, cares for father-in-law ‘He went into respite care, became unwell and ended up in hospital for a while. I didn’t realise he wasn’t eating until I went into visit him and saw a sign by his bed saying nil by mouth. I questioned them about this and they told me that the speech therapist had been in and confirmed that he could no longer swallow. They said that he should go to Compton Hospice... They were basically telling me that he was ready to die and there was no way back for him. So, naturally, I demanded to speak to the speech therapist... ©Copyright Karan Jutlla
© The Association for Dementia Studies Rani cont......she was assessing him with a banana yoghurt. I couldn’t believe it. He doesn’t like bananas and he doesn’t eat yoghurt. I took some home cooked Indian food in and he ate it.. He ate it all in front of her. That day I brought him back home and decided that he would never go to respite again, or to any other place for that matter. If I didn’t go in, he would be in a hospice dying right now. What made them think they could make such a massive decision like that without talking to us first Karan? What kind of a system is this?’ ©Copyright Karan Jutlla
© The Association for Dementia Studies In the case of Rani… Was this because staff weren’t culturally competent? Or… because staff weren’t being person- centred?
© The Association for Dementia Studies Service Perspective Fear of the ‘unknown’ Assumptions about community support: ‘They look after their own don’t they?’ Being ‘politically correct:’ ‘I’m sometimes frightened to ask in case I say the wrong thing’ (Care worker) Reliance on family for information Language is seen as the biggest barrier
© The Association for Dementia Studies What can we do to help? Build a “culturally competent” workforce: increase their confidence/attitude change Work collaboratively with community organisations, faith groups and families Have your value base clear
© The Association for Dementia Studies Person Centred Guiding Principles (Brooker 2007) Do my actions V alue and honour the people that I work with? Do I recognise the I ndividual uniqueness of the people I work with? Do I make a serious attempt to see my actions from their P erspective or stand point? Do my actions provide the S upport for people to feel socially confident and that they are not alone?
© The Association for Dementia Studies National Dementia Declaration: Seven Outcomes 1.I have personal choice and control or influence over decisions about me 2.I know that services are designed around me and my needs 3.I have support that helps me live my life 4.I have the knowledge and know-how to get what I need 5.I live in an enabling and supportive environment where I feel valued and understood 6.I have a sense of belonging and of being a valued part of family, community and civic life 7.I know there is research going on which delivers a better life for me now and hope for the future
© The Association for Dementia Studies The Association for Dementia Studies Cultural competency training key part of all courses An education programme for the domiciliary care sector Research and knowledge transfer: – ESRC Seminar Series: Age, Race and Ethnicity – Connecting Communities Project: External evaluation – Service development: ensuring cultural competency at the outset (Royal Surgical Aid Society)
© The Association for Dementia Studies Thank you Dr Karan Jutlla Association for Dementia Studies University of Worcester dementia-studies.html Thank you Dr Karan Jutlla Association for Dementia Studies University of Worcester dementia-studies.html
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