INSULIN Produced in the pancreas. A necessary hormone that enables bodily cells to allow blood sugar to enter and be converted into energy.
WHAT IS INSULIN? Insulin: A protein hormone Made up of two chains of amino acids. "A" chain which has 21 amino acids "B" chain which has 30 amino acids Linked together by two disulfide bonds.
WHY IS INSULIN IMPORTANT? Diabetes affects 25.8 million people of all ages. ( 7 million of which are undiagnosed). 8.3 % of the U.S. population Type 1 diabetes Autoimmune disease where the immune system destroys the beta cells (insulin producing cells of the pancreas) Pancreas doesn't produce enough insulin Requires daily administration of insulin. The cause of type 1 diabetes is not known and it is not preventable with current knowledge. Type 2 diabetes The body ineffectively uses insulin. Type 2 diabetes comprises 90% of people with diabetes around the world, and is largely the result of excess body weight and physical inactivity.
WHAT WAS USED BEFORE HAND? Pig and cattle pancreas glands were once the only viable method. This was sufficient for most diabetics however there was issues: Animals insulin caused some allergic reactions. Not a true human match to insulin. Not the most efficient way to obtain insulin.
INTRODUCTION OF SYNTHETIC INSULIN Synthetic insulin was first made in 1978 by scientists at Genetech, Inc. and City of Hope National Medical Center. Made possible by the discovery restriction enzymes & DNA ligase. Found naturally in bacteria. Catalysts to cut and rejoin DNA fragments.
HOW IT’S MADE Proteins are made in cells by translating the genetic information carried in a cell's DNA
HOW IT’S MADE Scientists use restriction enzymes and DNA ligase to make and link together fragments of DNA sequences to form complete genes. These are then stitched into circular DNA strands called plasmids. The plasmids are introduced into benign E. coli bacterial strains. Plasmids are small DNA molecules that are physically separate from and can replicate independently of, chromosomal DNA within a cell.
HOW IT’S MADE The bacteria translate the genes into the "A" and "B" chain proteins found in insulin. At this point the process is the same as how bacteria make there own proteins. The chains are harvested to isolate them from the bacteria and then a tetracycline (an antibiotic) is then added to kill off the bacteria. The two chains are combined chemically to form the complete insulin molecule which is identical to that produced by the human body.
BENEFITS Less expensive Absorbed more rapidly by the body Has a shorter more manageable duration of effectiveness Causes fewer allergic or autoimmune reactions than the animal insulin hormone.
SIDE EFFECTS Concern and discussions about side effects have increased in past years. Side effects: extreme lethargy mental confusion memory loss joint and muscle pains depression general feeling of being unwell.
WORKS CITED "Biology of C-peptide." Cebix. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Apr "DNA Ligase." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 04 May Web. 07 Apr Hirst, Jenny. 30 Years of Synthetic Insulin, Are People with Diabetes Getting the Best Deal? Rep. Insulin Dependent Diabetes Trust, Oct Web. 06 Apr "How Insulin Is Made Using Bacteria :: DNA Learning Center." DNALC Blogs. Cold Spring Habor Laboratory, n.d. Web. 06 Apr "How Is Synthetic Insulin Made?" How Is Synthetic Insulin Made? Diabetes Well Being, n.d. Web. 06 Apr