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 Steven C. Peck, dalam artikrlnya berjudul The Confidence and Trust That Encompasses the Fiduciary Relationship, California Business Lawyer, 28 Desember.

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Presentation on theme: " Steven C. Peck, dalam artikrlnya berjudul The Confidence and Trust That Encompasses the Fiduciary Relationship, California Business Lawyer, 28 Desember."— Presentation transcript:

1  Steven C. Peck, dalam artikrlnya berjudul The Confidence and Trust That Encompasses the Fiduciary Relationship, California Business Lawyer, 28 Desember 2009, menyatakan “A fiduciary is someone who has undertaken to act for and on behalf of another in a particular matter in circumstances which give rise to a relationship of trust and confidence … A fiduciary is expected to be extremely loyal to the person to whom he owes the duty (the "principal"): he must not put his personal interests before the duty, and must not profit from his position as a fiduciary, unless the principal consents."California Business Lawyer .

2  Robert Brown Jr. Dalam artikel Disloyalty Without Limit: Independent Directors and the Elemination of the Duty of Loyalty, Kentucky Law Journal, Vo. 95, 2006, mengatakan “absolute require of existing fiduciary relation and fiduciary duty is a fairness.”

3  Fiduciary duties of loyalty and good faith Duty of loyalty, “the decision makers within the company should act in the interest of the company, and not in their own interest” (Bernard S. Black) Duty of Good Faith, “… that directors must act in good faith in what they believe to be the best interest of the company” (Paul L. Davies)  Fiduciary duties of Skill and Care Diligently (Rajin) Carefully (Hati-hati) Skillfully (Terampil) Standart of Conduct

4 1. Directors must act bona fide, in what they believe to be in the best interest of the company, (Lord Greene dalamSmith v. Fawcett Ltd [1942] 1 A11 ER. 542, Lipton, “They (board of directors) must exercise their discretion bonafide in what they consider to be in the interest of the company, and not for any collateral purposes.”

5 2. Directors must exercise their powers for the purpose for which they were conferred and not for an extraneous purpose (Direksi diharapkan dapat bertindak adil dalam memberikan manfaat yang optimum bagi korporasi dengan menjalankan tujuan dari korporasi. Direksi tidak dapat melakukan tindakan di luar dari tujuan korporasi, walaupun menurut pertimbangannya tindakan tersebut baik bagi korporasi.)

6 3. Directors must not fetter their discretion to exercise their powers (Direksi tidak boleh melakukan pembatasan dini untuk bertindak yang sesuai dengan tujuan dan kepentingan korporasi. Direksi dalam menjalankan tugasnya harus tetap bebas dalam mengambil keputusan atau membuat kebijaksanaan sesuai pertimbangan bisnis dengan sense of business yang dimilikinya.)

7  Directors must not place themselves in position of conflict of interest without the consent of the company, Lord Herschell’s dalam kasus Bray v. Ford[1896] A.C. 44, 50; “it is an inflexible rule of a court of equity that a person in a fiduciary position... is not, unless otherwise expressly provided, entitled to make a profit; he is not allowed to put himself in a position where his interest and duty conflict.”

8  Duty of Skill (Direksi tidak diharapkan tingkat keahlian kecuali hanya setingkat yang dapat diharapkan secara wajar dari orang yang sama pengetahuan dan sama pengalaman dengannya)  Duty of Care (Direksi harus memiliki pemahaman yang sama mengenai bagaimana koeporasi harus dijalankan, sekalipun dalam keadaan sulit)

9  Roger LeRoy dan Gaylod A. Jentz dalam, Business Law Today: The Essentials, Cengage Learning, 2007, mengatakan bahwa “A rule that immunizes corporate management from liability for action that result in corporate losses or damages if the action are undertaken in good faith and are within both the power of the corporation and the authority of management to make.”

10  Douglas M. Branson, dalam artikelnya The Rule That Isn’t a Rule- The Business Rule, Valparaiso University Law Review, Vol. 36, 2002 mengatakan American Legal Institute, membuat parameter perlindungan bagi direksi dan keputusannya dari Legal Attack, yaitu: first, she and her colleagues made a judgement or decision; second, the decision makers were free from disabling conflict of interest; third, they exercised some (not necessarily reasonable) care in informing themselves about the matter decided; and fourth, they had rational (not necessarily reasonable) basis for the decision they made.”

11  Business Judgement Rule as standart of liability  Business Judgement Rule as abstention doctrine

12  Delaware Supreme Court, Graham v. Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 188 A2d 125, 130 (Del. 1963)  Dasar Pemikiran “What a directors to act with the same amount of care which ordinarily careful and prudent men would use in similar circumstance.”

13  Shlensky v. Wrigley, 273 N.E.2d 776 (III. App. 1968) dengan argument sebagai berikut: “that the court will not step in and interfere with honest business judgement of the directors unless there is a showing of fraud, illegality or conflict of interest”.  Harlowe’s Nominees Pty Ltd v. Woodside (Lakes Entrance) Oil Co. Oil Co. N.L.121 C.L.R. 483 dengan argumen sebagai berikut:“directors in whom are vested the right and duty of deciding where the company’s interest lie and how they are to be served may be concerned with a wide range of practical considerations and their Judgement if exercised in good faith and not for irrelevant purposes is not open to review by the court”

14  Frank H. Easterbrook and Daniel R. Fischel, dalam bukunya The Economics Structure of Corporate Law, (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1991) menyatakan “behind business judgement rule lies recognition that investors wealth would be lower if managers decision were routinely subjected to strict judicial review… precisely why investors wealth not be maximized by closed judicial scrutiny is less clear. The standard justifications are that judges lack competence in making business decisions and that the fear of personal liability will cause corporate managers to be more cautious and also result in fewer talented people being willing to serve as director ”

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