Social background Brand image Opinion Status Design … Anticipation + research = Succes !
Green label = Eco-label Green sticker Government Flower logo (easy identification) EU Eco-label Best products Eco-label ◦ Trustworthy ◦ Ensures quality ◦ Environmental-friendly policy ◦ Rapidly growing brand (benefits) ◦ Awarded after verification of standards
Voluntary product label Established in 1992 Encouragement of green management Labels ◦ Awarded according to environmetal criteria Criteria ◦ Whole life cycle Extraction Manufacture Distribution Use Disposal Life cycle
Trust is an issue ◦ ‘Rubber stamp’ labels ◦ Greenwashing
Green stickers on consumer goods 1970’s Focus on fuel consumption North-American automobile industry ◦ Minimum emisson standard Fuel efficiency labels Eco-labels: 1992 ◦ Encourage environmental-friendly products & services ISO ◦ ‘International Organization for Standardization’ ◦ Standards related to environmental management
Life cycle thinking perspective The over-exploitation of the raw materials due to the high demand of cars would lead to the depletion of non-renewable natural resources..
Air Pollutant Proportion from On-road Motor Vehicles Effects Oxides of Nitrogen (NO x )34% precursor to ground-level ozone (smog), which damages the respiratory system and injures plants Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) 34% precursor to ground-level ozone (smog), which damages the respiratory system and injures plants Carbon Monoxide (CO)51% contributes to smog production; poisonous in high concentrations Particulate Matter (PM 10 )10%does not include dust from paved and unpaved roads, which are the major source of particulate matter pollution (50% of the total)
Air Pollutant Proportion from On-road Motor Vehicles Effects Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 )33% thought to be primary contributor to global warming Lead_ Elevated lead levels can adversely affect mental development, kidney function, and blood chemistry. Young children are particularly at risk. Sulphur oxides (SOx) -_Combustion of petroleum products generates sulfur dioxide. Further oxidation of SO2, usually in the presence of a catalyst such as NO2, forms H2SO4, and thus acid rain
1. Local effects -e.g. poisoning humans breathing bad air. 2. Regional effects - fallout from airborne pathogens - infections, particles, chemicals. 3. Global effects - changing interactions between the atmosphere, oceans and the sun, weather effects, effects on plants and the ocean biosphere.
Runoff of oil, dirt, brake dust, deposited vehicle exhaust, road particles, automotive fluids, and de-icing chemicals from roadways and parking lots. Improperly or illegally disposed waste fluids, e.g. used motor oil. Results Oil floats on top of water, ◦ less sunlight penetrates into the water, limiting the photosynthesis of marine plants and phytoplankton. Decreasing the fauna populations, Affects the food chain in the ecosystem.
Noise Pollution Primary source of noise pollution in urban environments Effects on Wildlife The primary way people kill wildlife is by automobiles. ◦ It is estimated motor vehicles kill over a million animals in collisions every day in the US.
Uses less petrol Produces cleaner and fewer emissions Run on electricity or bio fuels
Diesel green cars Ethanol cars Natural gas Electric cars Hybrid cars
Diesel produces less greenhouse gases Produces black smoke (particulate matter) Better fuel mileage
Biodiesel is blend of diesel and vegetable oil Every existing diesel engine is capable of using biodiesel You can modify your diesel engines to run a fuel called straight vegetable oil SVO
+ - Lower emission Versatility: ability to switch between biodiesel and regular diesel Car selection Better mileage Particulate matter and smog Price Cold weather
+- Reduce of emissions Fuel versatility: Either E85 or regular Price Car selection Limited refueling stations Wheat-based fuel additive E85 most popular (85 % ethanol 15 % gasoline) Bioadapter can be inserted into a new car
+- Cleaner burning Cars last longer Price Limited refueling stations Car selection Reduces range: CNG takes twice the space than gasoline Cleaner-burning fossil fuel
Created mid-19th century Use electrical energy stored in batteries
+- significant reduction of air pollution Noiseless reduced greenhouse gas emissions Not depended on foreign oil Noiseless Difficulties in storage batteries Price of the vehicle lack of public and private recharging infrastructure
Full hybrids Mild hybrid ◦ Cannot use electric motor alone Runs both electric and gasoline Captures energy when braking Auto stop start ◦ Switches engine off at traffic lights
+- Great mileage Quiet Smooth ride Runs also on gasoline Batteries Quiet Price
EU Directive on end-of-life vehicles says Objective First of all prevention of waste from vehicles Then reuse, recycling of end-of-life vehicles and components Prevention Conception of vehicles with limited hazardous substances Design takes dismantling, reuse and recycling into account Usage of more recycled materials 85% rate of reuse and recovery by % rate of reuse and recovery by 2015 Design - Prevention CollectionTreatment Reuse, recovery
Raw material melting Raw material producing Manu facturing Assembling Automotive operation Recycle/ Reuse Product lifecycle in automotive industry Manufacturing Raw materialOperation Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) during whole automotive lifecycle
Jaguar Land Rover case study Strategic environmental goals 25% reduction in EU fleet CO 2 by % reduction in operational CO 2 emissions by % reduction in waste to landfill by % reduction in water use by 2012 Cars are designed to be 85% recycleable and 95% recoverable Established takeback points in UK for old cars (cartakeback.com) Jaguar XJ Body approximately 40% recycled aluminium 30 kg of other recycled materials Boot lid trim, rear seat trim board made from recycled polypropylene
Jaguar Land Rover case study Some facts about manufacturing & distribution Since 2001 energy usage down by 57% Since 2001 water usage down by 71% Since 2001 waste down by 65% Switched to rail distribution of new cars Within 10 years 60 million truck miles safed
Jaguar Land Rover case study Engaging customers on sustainability Dealerships must display sustainable development policy Sustainability information in welcome packs for customers Offering CO 2 offset programmes Investing in projects to offset CO 2 in other parts of the world Enables customers to compensate emissions from using a Jaguar Biomass energy project in Brazil Geothermal energy project in Kenya Providing efficient cooking stoves in Uganda Free takeback service for old cars in the European Union (250 takeback points in UK)
1. Car is taken to scrapyard 2. Sellable parts are taken off the car 3. Recyclable parts are taken off 4. The car srap is crashed and sent to the shredder 5. The metallic components are separated by weight to heavier and lighter metals 6. Separated metals are melted to ingots and sold
Already recycled plastic parts Manufacturers try not to use heavy metal parts Trunk floor, door panels etc. made from recycled leather