Presentation on theme: "[ 6.1 ] Texans Expand Westward. Learning Objectives Identify the effect of westward expansion on American Indians. Describe the effects of the Frontier."— Presentation transcript:
Learning Objectives Identify the effect of westward expansion on American Indians. Describe the effects of the Frontier Wars on Texas. Identify the factors leading to the expansion of the Texas frontier. Explain how West Texas was opened to Anglo American settlement. Explain the main duties of the Texas Rangers during the 1870s.
[ 6.1 ] Texans Expand Westward Key Terms Salt Creek Massacre Quanah Parker extinction industry. dragoons Guerrilla desperados
A History of Conflict with American Indians Conflicts between Europeans and American Indians date back to the 1500s. In 1542, Caddo warriors in East Texas that were concerned for the safety of their villages attacked a Spanish force led by Luis de Moscoso. In response, the Spanish force destroyed many Caddo villages and enslaved the people.
A History of Conflict with American Indians The Comanche, Kiowa, and Wichita North and West Texas Efforts to Encourage Peace on the Frontier The Effects of the Salt Creek Massacre Significant Figures in the Frontier Wars
A History of Conflict with American Indians Analyze Maps Why did most battles of the Frontier Wars take place in the far north and west of Texas?
A History of Conflict with American Indians In 1867, leaders of the U.S. government and several American Indian tribes signed the Medicine Lodge Treaty. Some tribal leaders refused to sign the treaty and it failed to bring the hoped for peace to the West.
The Frontier Wars in the Panhandle After the Salt Creek Massacre, General Sherman sent more soldiers to enforce the reservation policy in Texas. The new arrivals brought more horses, better weapons, and harsher tactics. New weapons, especially the repeating rifle, gave the army a significant advantage over the Comanche and Kiowa.
The Frontier Wars in the Panhandle New Military Tactics Red River War
The Frontier Wars in the Panhandle By the 1870s, American Indian warriors on horseback fought using rifles and other weapons. Apply Concepts What special skills or knowledge allowed American Indians to fight well against better-armed U.S. forces?
The Frontier Wars in South Texas The end of the Red River War and defeat of the Comanche and Kiowa, however, did not end conflict. In other parts of Texas, Anglos, African Americans, and Mexican Americans continued to struggle with Native Americans.
The Frontier Wars in South Texas Apache Raids The Buffalo Soldiers Outlaws Clash With the Texas Rangers The End of an Era
The Frontier Wars in South Texas Analyze Information How were the Frontier Wars a turning point for Texas Indians?
The Frontier Wars in South Texas This photograph, taken around 1895, shows African American members of the U.S. Cavalry. Indians called these men Buffalo Soldiers as a sign of respect.
The Frontier Wars in South Texas Analyze Maps What geographic factors probably made the Neuces Strip especially hard to patrol?
Expansion on the Western Frontier At the time of the Civil War, Anglos had settled less than half of Texas. The troops who guarded the frontier left Texas to fight in the war. With the absence of soldiers, American Indians raided Anglo settlements and burned farms and ranches. Thousands of settlers left their homes. The frontier in Texas moved back eastward.
Expansion on the Western Frontier Settlers Move Westward Blackland Prarie Migration to West Texas The Closing of the Frontier Further Development in West Texas
Expansion on the Western Frontier Analyze Visuals How did improvements in transportation technology likely affect the development of the West Texas frontier?
Expansion on the Western Frontier Some settlers came to Texas in wagon trains. Support Ideas with Evidence What details from this photograph reveal the challenges of life in a wagon train?
Expansion on the Western Frontier Analyze Data Why did westward expansion likely lead to an increase in overall railroad track mileage?
The Texas Rangers In 1823, Stephen F. Austin had first raised a small force of experienced frontiersmen as Rangers to protect the settlers against Indians. In 1835, lawmakers in Texas formally organized the Texas Rangers to better protect the frontier. Over time, the Rangers served as both a special police force and as a military unit.
The Texas Rangers The Early Organization Necessary Skills The Rangers and the Texas Revolution The Rangers and the Lamar Administration War With Mexico The Rangers in the Civil War Keeping the Peace Law and Order
The Texas Rangers Analyze Visuals How did the job of the Texas Rangers change over time?
The Texas Rangers This photograph, taken in about 1890, shows some members of the Texas Rangers. Texas leaders created this force during the republic to protect the Texas frontier.
Quiz: A History of Conflict with American Indians Which event caused General William T. Sherman to send large squads of U.S. soldiers to attack Comanche and Kiowa villages? A. the end of the Civil War B. signing of the Medicine Lodge Treaty C. Satanta’s raid at Salt Creek D. creation of the Texas Rangers
Quiz: The Frontier Wars in the Panhandle What was the main outcome of the Frontier Wars? A. Buffalo hunting came to an end. B. Anglo settlers forced American Indians from the land. C. Texas established its first frontier government D. American Indians moved mostly to the Panhandle.
Quiz: The Frontier Wars in South Texas What role did the Buffalo Soldiers have in the conflicts on the Frontier? A. They opposed the Apaches. B. They helped the Kiowa fight U.S. soldiers. C. They sheltered cattle rustlers in the Southwest. D. They joined Mexicans to fight the American Indians.
Quiz: Expansion on the Western Frontier Which activity ended with the closing of the frontier? A. cattle drives B. railroad building C. use of barbed wire D. telegraph messages
Quiz: The Texas Rangers The Texas Rangers formed for which main purpose? A. to help the Mexican army B. to fight in the Confederate army C. to protect the frontier from Indian raids D. to negotiate treaties with the Indians