# Comparison and Contrast ENG 101 Ms. Fatema Khurshid.

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Comparison and Contrast ENG 101 Ms. Fatema Khurshid

What is the Purpose? To show the similarities between at least two things and/or To show the difference between two things To inform To explain To analyze To evaluate

Emphasis on Comparison Comparison – analyzes the similarities of two or more things. When you compare items, you look for their similarities--the things that make them the same. For example: For example: –Apples and oranges are both fruit. –They're both foods. –Both are made into juice. –Both grow on trees.

Contrast – emphasizes the differences rather than the similarities When you contrast items, you look at their differences. For example: Apples are red. Oranges are orange. The fruits have different textures. Oranges need a warmer place to grow, like Florida. Apples can grow in cooler states, like Washington.

Pattern A (Point by Point) In this structure, you explain one point of comparison before moving to the next point. For instance, you would write about the characters in the book and movie in one section; then you would write about the setting in the book and movie in the next section.

Pattern A (continued) Point-by-Point comparison and contrast uses a separate section or paragraph for each point. Point #1 for your paper could be information about the characters in the book and the movie. You'd begin a section or paragraph for Point #2. For consistency, begin with the same item in each section of your point-by-point paper. For instance, for each point that you discuss, explain the information about the book first and then about the movie.

Sample Outline Pattern A I. Introduction II. Body paragraph 1: Topic: Temperament – dogs/cats III. Body paragraph 2: Topic: Care –dogs/cats IV. Body paragraph 3: Topic: Expense – dogs/cats V. Conclusion

Paragraph Organization--Point by Point Price Mileage Insurance BMW ↓ Honda Civic ↓ 2 nd Paragraph 3rd Paragraph 4 th Paragraph

Outline - Point by Point I. Introduction a) Attention Getter or Hook b) Background Information c) Thesis II. Price a) BMW b) Honda III. Mileage a) BMW b) Honda IV. Insurance a) BMW b) Honda V. Conclusion a) Emphasize Major Ties b) So What? c) Evaluation

Pattern B (All of One/All of the Other) (Whole-to-Whole) Write about topic A first, covering it completely. Next, write only about topic B. The points of comparison should be the same and in the same order for both topics.

Sample Outline for Pattern B I. Introduction II. Body Paragraph 1 – Topic A = Dogs A. Temperament B. Care C. Expense III. Body Paragraph 2 - Topic B = cats I. Temperament II. Care III. Expense IV. Conclusion

Paragraph Organization--Block Price Mileage Insurance BMW →→→ Honda Civic →→→ 2 nd Paragraph 3 rd Paragraph

Outline - Block Method I. Introduction a) Attention Getter or Hook b) Background Information c) Thesis II. BMW a) Price b) Mileage c) Insurance III. Honda Civic a) Price b) Mileage c) Insurance IV. Conclusion a) Emphasize Major Ties b) So What? c) Evaluation

Checklist There are three main things to pay attention to as you write a comparison and contrast paper: 1. Purpose & Supporting Details 2. Organization & Structure 3. Transitions & Coherence In addition, be sure to pay attention to the usual requirements for writing, such as spelling, punctuation, and grammar.

Pre-writing Chart Price Price Mileage Mileage Insurance Insurance BMW HondaCivic

Venn Diagram Alike

Writing a Thesis Statement Review your data Decide to what extent you will stress the similarities between your subjects and to what extent you will stress their differences Create a thesis statement that reflects that decision

Sample Thesis Statement for Honda/BMW Comparison/Contrast In order to make a decision between the Honda Civic and the BMW, people generally use the following criteria: price of the vehicle, average mileage, and price of insurance.

Transitions To Compare –also –as –in the same way –like –likewise –similarly –comparable –equally –in addition To Contrast - although -but -even though -however -on the other hand -otherwise-yet-still-conversely -as opposed to -different from -whereas

Review  Make sure you understand the purpose of the assignment  Complete pre-writing activity  Gather evidence  Create a thesis statement  Choose an organizational pattern  Write an outline  Write a working draft  Revise as needed

Additional Resources See East versus West for a sample essay and teacher comments. http://www.personal.psu.edu/faculty/k/x/kxk3 0/des-student/defess.htm http://www.personal.psu.edu/faculty/k/x/kxk3 0/des-student/defess.htm