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Organizational Strategy, Competitive Advantage, and Information Systems 2.

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Presentation on theme: "Organizational Strategy, Competitive Advantage, and Information Systems 2."— Presentation transcript:

1 Organizational Strategy, Competitive Advantage, and Information Systems 2

2 1. Discuss ways in which information systems enable cross- functional business processes and business processes for a single functional area. 2. Become familiar with business process defi nition, measurement, and analysis. 3. Compare and contrast business process improvement, business process reengineering, and business process management to identify the advantages and disadvantages of each one. 4. Identify effective IT responses to different kinds of business pressures. 5. Describe the strategies that organizations typically adopt to counter Porter’s five competitive forces. 6. Describe the characteristics of effective business–information technology alignment.

3 1. Business Processes 2. Business Process Reengineering, Business Process Improvement, and Business Process Management 3. Business Pressures, Organizational Responses, and Information Technology Support 4. Competitive Advantage and Strategic Information Systems 5. Business–Information Technology Alignment

4 [ Opening Case A Tool to Combat Terrorism and Fight Crime ] The Problem A Potential IT Solution The Results What We Learned from This Case

5 About [small] business Sharing Bicycles2.1

6 Business Processes 2.1 Cross-Functional Processes Information Systems and Business Processes

7 Business Processes A business process is: – an ongoing collection of related activities that create a product or service of value to the organization, its business partners, and/or its customers. Comprised of three elements: – Inputs – Resources – Outputs Efficiency vs. Effectiveness

8 Cross-Functional Processes No single functional area is responsible steps executed in a coordinated, collaborative way Procurement & Fulfillment Cross- functional processes

9 Example: Purchasing Airline Tickets Online

10 Notify Traveler Receive Ticket Order Reserve Seats Charge Credit Card Confirm Flight(s) Issue e-Ticket Plan Trip Check Flights Submit Ticket Order Receive e-Ticket Seats Available Use Credit Card? Charge OK? Seats Available? Notify Traveler Frequent Flyer Mileage Sufficient? Subtract Mileage NO YES NO YES NO YES NO YES Traveler Airline Web Site YES NO

11 Information Systems & Business Processes IS’s vital role in three areas of business processes – Executing the process – Capturing and storing process data – Monitoring process performance

12 Executing the Process IS’s help Execute the Process by: – Informing employees when it is time to complete a task – Providing required data – Providing a means to complete the task

13 Capturing & Storing Process Data Processes generate data – Dates, times, product numbers, quantities, prices, addresses, names, employee actions IS’s capture & store process data (aka, transaction data) Capturing & storing data provides immediate, ‘real time’ feedback

14 Monitoring Process Performance IS evaluates information to determine how well a process is being executed Evaluations occur at two levels – Process level – Instance level Monitoring identifies problems for process improvement

15 Business Process Improvement, Business Process Reengineering, and Business Process Management 2.2 Reengineering Improvement Management

16 Measures of Excellence in Executing Business Processes Customer Satisfaction Cost Reduction Cycle and fulfillment time reduction Quality Differentiation Productivity

17 Business Process Reengineering (BPR) Michael Hammer & James Champy, 1993, Reengineering the Corporation BPR – A radical redesign of an organization’s business processes to increase productivity and profitability – Examines business processes with a “clean slate” approach

18 Business Process Improvement (BPI) BPI – An incremental approach to move an organization toward business process centered operations – Focuses on reducing variation in process outputs by identifying the underlying cause of the variation Six Sigma is a popular methodology for BPI

19 Business Process Improvement (BPI) Five basic phases of successful BPI – Define – Measure – Analyze – Improve – Control

20 BPR versus BPI Low risk / low cost Incremental change Bottom-up approach Takes less time Quantifiable results All employees trained in BPI High risk / high cost Radical redesign Top-down approach Time consuming Impacts can be overwhelming High failure rate BPIBPR

21 Business Process Management (BPM) A management system used to support continuous BPI initiatives for core business processes over time Important components of BPM: – Process modeling – Web-enabled technologies – Business Activity Monitoring (BAM)

22 Business Process Management (BPM) Business Process Management Suite (BPMS) – An integrated set of applications used for BPM Emerging Trend of Social BPM – Technologies enabling employees to collaborate across functions internally and externally using social media tools

23 [about business] Chevron2.2

24 Business Pressures, Organizational Responses, and Information Technology Support 2.3 Business Pressures Organizational Responses

25 Business Pressures Market Pressures Technology Pressures Societal/Political/Legal Pressures

26 Market Pressures Globalization Changing Nature of the Workforce Powerful Customers

27 Globalization The integration and interdependence of economic, social, cultural, and ecological facets of life, made possible by rapid advances in IT.

28 Globalization The World is Flat, by Thomas Friedman – Technology is leveling global competition making the world “Flat” Friedman’s Three Eras of Globalization – Globalization 1.0 – Globalization 2.0 – Globalization 3.0

29 Globalization 1.0 (1 st Era) Focus: – Countries Drivers: – Muscle – Horse power – Wind power – Steam power

30 Globalization 2.0 (2 nd Era) Focus: – Companies Main Driver: – Multinational Companies First Half of 2.0 – Driver: Falling transport costs Second Half of 2.0 – Driver: Falling telecom costs

31 Globalization 3.0 (3 rd Era) Present Focus: – Groups & Individuals Drivers: – Convergence of 10 forces or “Flatteners”

32 The Ten “Flatteners” 5.Outsourcing 6.Offshoring 7.Supply Chaining 8.Insourcing 9.Informing 10.The Steriods 1.11/9/1989: Berlin Wall Falls 2.8/9/1995: Netscape Goes Public 3.Development of Workflow Software 4.Uploading

33 Changing Nature of the Workforce Workforce is Becoming More Diversified – Women – Single Parents – Minorities – Persons with Disabilities IT is Enabling Telecommuting Employees

34 Powerful Customers Increasing consumer sophistication & expectations Consumer more knowledgeable about – Products and services – Price comparisons – Electronic auctions Customer Relationship Management

35 Technology Pressures Technological Innovation & Obsolescence – Rapid development of both New and Substitute Products & Services Information Overload – Vast stores of data, information, & knowledge – Difficulties in managing data for decision making

36 Societal / Political / Legal Pressures Social Responsibility Compliance with Government Regulations Protection against Terrorist Attacks Ethical Issues

37 Social Responsibility Green IT – Facilities design and management – Carbon management – International and U.S. state environmental laws – Energy management Digital Divide – One Laptop per Child (OLPC)

38 Social Responsibility & Philanthropy in Business

39 Compliance with Government Regulations Sarbanes-Oxley Act USA PATRIOT act Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act Health Insurance Portability & Accountability Act (HIPAA)

40 Protection against Terrorist Attacks Employees in military reserves called to active duty Information Technology used to identify and protect against terrorists and cyberattacks Department of Homeland Security’s (DHS) US-VISIT program – Network of biometric-screening systems

41 Ethical Issues General standards of right and wrong – Information-processing activities – Monitoring employee – Monitoring employee Internet activity at work – Privacy of customer data

42 [about business] “Bring Your Own Device” Can Cause Problems 2.3

43 [about business] The Surui Tribe of the Amazon 2.4

44 Organizational Responses Strategic Systems Customer Focus Make-to-Order and Mass Customization – Bodymetrics (www.bodymetrics.com)www.bodymetrics.com E-Business & E-Commerce

45 [about business] Massechusetts Mutual Transforms Its Information Systems 2.5

46 Competitive Advantage and Strategic Information Systems 2.4 Porter’s Competitive Forces Model Porter’s Value Chain Model Strategies for Competitive Advantage

47 Competitive Advantage and Strategic Information Systems 2.4 Competitive Strategy – A statement identifying a business’s approach to compete, it’s goals, and the plans and policies required to attain those goals.

48 Competitive Advantage and Strategic Information Systems 2.4 Strategic Information Systems (SIS) – An information system that helps an organization achieve and maintain a competitive advantages

49 Porter’s Competitive Forces Model

50 1.Threat of Entry of New Competitors 2.Bargaining Power of Suppliers 3.Bargaining Power of Customers/Buyers 4.Threat of Substitute Products or Services 5.Rivalry Among Existing Firms within the Industry

51 Porter’s Value Chain Model

52 Value Chain – A sequence of activities through which the organization’s inputs are transformed into valuable outputs. Primary Activities – Relate to Production & Distribution of Products & Services Support Activities – Support Primary Activities Contributing to Competitive Advantage

53 Primary Activities Five Primary Activities for Manufacturing 1.Inbound Logistics (inputs) 2.Operations (manufacturing & testing) 3.Outbound Logistics (storage & distribution) 4.Marketing & Sales 5.After Sales Services

54 Support Activities Four Support Activities 1.Firm’s Infrastructure (accounting, finance, management) 2.Human Resources Management 3.Product & Technology Development (R&D) 4.Procurement

55 Strategies for Competitive Advantage Cost Leadership Differentiation Innovation Operational Effectiveness Customer-Orientation

56 Business – Information Technology Alignment 2.5 The tight integration of the IT function with the organization’s strategy, mission, and goals.

57 Six Characteristics of Excellent Business-IT Alignment 1.IT viewed as an engine of innovation continually transforming the business and often creating new revenue streams. 2.Organizations view their internal & external customers and their customer service function as supremely important. 3.Organizations rotate business and IT professionals across departments and job functions.

58 Six Characteristics of Excellent Business-IT Alignment 4.Organizations provide overarching goals that are completely clear to each IT and business 5.Organizations ensure that IT employees understand how the company makes (or loses) money. 6.Organizations create a vibrant and inclusive company culture.

59 Major Reasons Business-IT Alignment Does Not Occur Business managers and IT managers have different objectives. The business and IT departments are ignorant of the other group’s expertise. A lack of communication.

60 [ Closing Case IBM’s Watson ] The Problem An Interesting IT Solution The Results: Initial Uses of Watson What We Learned from This Case


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