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Design Team # 3 Shell Eco Marathon (Super-mileage Car) Members: Hussain Abdellatif Sohaib Syed Alam Julius Mantolino Adam Procter Supervisor: Dr. Alex.

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Presentation on theme: "Design Team # 3 Shell Eco Marathon (Super-mileage Car) Members: Hussain Abdellatif Sohaib Syed Alam Julius Mantolino Adam Procter Supervisor: Dr. Alex."— Presentation transcript:

1 Design Team # 3 Shell Eco Marathon (Super-mileage Car) Members: Hussain Abdellatif Sohaib Syed Alam Julius Mantolino Adam Procter Supervisor: Dr. Alex Kalamkarov

2  Background  Scope  Design Requirements  The Design  Current Project Status  Future Considerations  Design Requirements Check  Budget  Acknowledgements 2

3  Americas Shell Eco-Marathon Competition not to go fast but to use least amount of fuel  Houston, Texas – (March 29-April )  2009 Dalhousie Team - 12 th Place (819mpg)  Core Super mileage Team with 4 volunteers ◦ Cover ◦ Steering ◦ Driver 3

4  Ultimate Goal: Achieve ≥ 900 mpg  Qualify/Compete for Shell Eco Marathon: ◦ Geometric Limitations ◦ 4 stroke IC Gasoline Engine  Increased Fuel Efficiency  Lighter Powertrain  Lighter Chassis  Lighter & More Efficient Wheels 4

5  Engine  Fuel Injection System  Powertrain ◦ Transmission ◦ Bearings ◦ Clutch  Chassis  Wheels 5

6  Rolling Resistance ◦ Reduction in weight ◦ More efficient wheels  Aerodynamics ◦ Reduction in frontal area 6

7  Direct Fuel Consumption  Options Considered: ◦ Old 35cc Honda ◦ Old 50cc XF Yamaha ◦ New 35cc Robin Subaru Honda 35cc [1] Robin Subaru 35cc [2] 50cc XF Yamaha 7

8 Parameter35cc Honda[1]35cc Subaru[2]50cc Yamaha[3] Weight [kg] Displacement [cm 3 ] Max. Power RPM] Max. Torque RPM] Max. Power to Weight Ratio [HP/kg] Past ExperienceUnderpoweredN/AOverpowered Engine Selected : 35cc Robin Subaru 8

9  One-way Needle Bearing  Reused electric motor from Yamaha  Gear reduction 9

10 Requirement: Max. Noise Level <90 dB  Stock Muffler: ◦ Lower Efficiency  Glass Pack Muffler: ◦ Perforated Design ◦ Packing diffuses sound ◦ Less restriction Glass Pack Muffler [4] 10

11  Possible fuel delivery methods: ◦ Carbureted ◦ Port Fuel Injection ◦ Direct Injection  Direct Injection is not Viable: ◦ Requires mechanical fuel pump (competition rules) ◦ Complex 11

12 CarburetorPort Fuel Injection Advantages No cost Time savings Advantages Controlled amounts of fuel Conversion kit can be readily purchased Disadvantages  Low efficiency  No control on optimum fuel consumption Disadvantages  Cost (~$800)  Needs pressurized system  Calibration and fine tuning Selected: Port Fuel Injection 12

13  Replace carburetor  Conversion kit purchased from Ecotron:  Key components: ◦ Oxygen (O 2 ) Sensor ◦ Fuel Injector ◦ Programmable Engine Control Unit (ECU) ◦ Fuel Pressurization System ◦ Throttle Body 13

14 Control parameters as required Engine Control Unit (ECU) Throttle Position Inlet Air Pressure Fuel Injector Inlet Air Temp. Exhaust Temp. Crankshaft Position Engine Kill Switch Programmable Control Parameters Sensors – InputControlled Output Exhaust O 2 14 Spark Timing

15 Fuel Pressurization System [5] 15

16 16

17 Direct DriveVariable Transmission Advantages: Simple design Cheap Lightweight Advantages: Vary the gear ratio to the wheel Change torque at wheel Disadvantages:  Can’t run at BEP  Start-up load Disadvantages:  Expensive  Complicated and heavy  Requires gear shifting Transmission Type Selected : Direct Drive 17

18  Components: ◦ Gear Reduction Method  Two Stages ◦ Bearing ◦ Clutch 18

19 Roller ChainTiming BeltPlanetary Gearbox Advantages: Easy to design Cheap Advantages: Cheap Light weight Advantages: Compact Design High reliability Disadvantages:  Weight  Large sprockets  Space Disadvantages:  Pulleys sizes  Space Disadvantages:  Cost (~$800)  Medium Weight Primary Stage Selected : Planetary Gearbox 19

20  Planetary Gearbox for 1st stage  Purchase Neugart PLE60-20 Planetary Gearbox from Wainbee Ltd. ◦ 94% efficient ◦ 20:1 gear ratio ◦ Continuous torque 44 N.m.  Roller Chain and Sprockets for 2nd stage 20

21  Planetary Gearbox for 1st stage  Roller Chain and Sprockets for 2nd stage 21

22 Ceramic (Si 3 N 4 ) Ball Bearings [6]Steel Bearings Advantages: Significantly reduced weight; (0.5 x steel) 30% the friction of steel Provides smoother operation Advantages: Cheap Disadvantages:  Expensive (10 x price of steel) Disadvantages:  Heavier  More friction  Requires lubrication Bearings Selected : Ceramic Ball Bearings 22

23  Centrifugal [7]  Friction Plate [8] 23

24 Friction Plate ClutchCentrifugal Clutch Advantages: Flexibility in engaging Less power losses Greater torque capacity Advantages: Light weight Compact Automatic engagement Disadvantages:  Heavier  Space  Risk of stalling Disadvantages:  Power losses during slippage  Spares Clutch Selected : Centrifugal Clutch 24

25  Engine is not overloaded 25

26  Design Requirement: Lighter chassis ◦ Aluminum Alloy 6061-T6 ◦ Yield strength = 275 MPa  Weight estimate entire car (with driver) ~ 90kg  Withstand static load of 700N on roll bar Past teamSelected 1’’ OD by 0.125” thick Cross section area = 0.34 in 2 1-1/4’’ OD by 0.065” thick Cross section area = 0.24 in 2 30% weight reduction per unit length 26

27 Max. Stress: 55 MPa 27

28 Max. Stress: 75 MPa 28

29 Max. Stress: 50 MPa 29

30 Max. Stress: 43.8 MPa 30

31 31  3 wheels: 2 in front, 1 in back  Front Wheel Design ◦ Lighter ◦ No Internal Ratchet  Back Wheel Design ◦ Internal Ratchet ◦ Heavier Back vs Front Wheel Assembly [9]

32  3 wheels: 2 in front, 1 in back Past teamSelected Front Wheels: o Small (406 x 44c) Back wheels: o Small (406 x 44c) o Back Wheel Design Front wheels: o Larger (700 x 25c) Back wheels: o Larger (650 x 25c) o Front Wheel Design Front Wheel Assembly: Lighter Larger Rim Size: Less Bearing Loss 32

33  Incorporate Sprag Clutch in Back Wheel  Disc Brakes: ◦ Reusing from past team ◦ Consistent brake performance  Hubs & Spokes to be purchased 33

34  Past: ◦ Michelin road tires  Selected : ◦ Continental GatorSkin tires ◦ Higher inflation pressure  150 psi vs. 60 psi  Lower rolling resistance ◦ Flat and puncture resistant ◦ Durable Michelin Tires [10] GatorSkin Tire [11] 34

35 35

36  Purchased: ◦ Robin Subaru 33.5cc engine ◦ Electronic Fuel Injection (EFI) kit ◦ PLE60-20 Planetary Gearbox ◦ Aluminum tubing for chassis  Designed: ◦ Power Train Components ◦ Electric Starter Assembly ◦ Chassis Main Frame Body 36

37 Achieved Already Qualify/Compete for Shell Eco Marathon ◦ Geometric Limitations ◦ 4 stroke IC Gasoline Engine Lighter Powertrain (Centrifugal) Lighter Chassis (30% reduction) To Be Achieved:  Increased Fuel Efficiency - to be confirmed with dyno  Lighter & More Efficient Wheels  Achieve ≥ 900 mpg - TBD 37

38  Assemble Power Train  Assemble Power Train, Steering & Cover onto Chassis  Purchase Wheels & Wheel Components  Obtain Engine Curves with Dyno: ◦ Carburetor ◦ Fuel Injection  Fine Tune ECU Programmable Parameters  Dyno Wheels 38

39  Engine $425  Fuel Injection System $586  Drivetrain & Clutch (estimate) $2000  Chassis $500  Wheels $  Total (15% Contingency) ~$

40 We would like to thank:  Dr. Julio Militzer  Dr. Alex Kalamkarov  Albert Murphy  Mark MacDonald  Angus MacPherson  Peter Jones  Allison Chua, Drew Moores, Ryan Louie & Dainis Nams 40

41 We Thank Our Sponsors 41

42 [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] D~ /continental-ultra-gatorskin-700-x-28-wire-tire.jsp 42

43 43

44  Engine Specs  Load Torque Assumptions  Bearings  Bearing, Output Shaft FEMS  Starter Assembly FEM 44

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48 Engagement speed Slip Period Max. Clutch Torque Clutch “Bites” Clutch transmits engine torque 48

49 Ceramic (Si 3 N 4 ) Ball BearingsSteel Bearings Advantages: Significantly reduced weight; density of Si 3 N 4 is 3.2 g/cm 3 versus 7.8 g/cm 3 of steel Co-efficient of friction is 30% that of steel Less lubrication required Can operate at higher speeds (20% to 40% higher) Smoother operation because modulus of elasticity higher (stiffer) than steel; 320 GPa vs 200 GPa – less deformations leading to less vibrations Advantages: Cheap Better impact loading handling Disadvantages:  Expensive (10 times the cost of steel bearings) Disadvantages:  Heavier  Higher co-efficient of friction  Need for lubrication  More vibrations and rocky operation Ball Bearings Selected : Ceramic Ball Bearings 49

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