Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Air Quality Research Group, U.W.E., Bristol, UK Action Planning for Air Quality Improvements: Comparative Perspectives - UK Professor Jim Longhurst and.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Air Quality Research Group, U.W.E., Bristol, UK Action Planning for Air Quality Improvements: Comparative Perspectives - UK Professor Jim Longhurst and."— Presentation transcript:

1 Air Quality Research Group, U.W.E., Bristol, UK Action Planning for Air Quality Improvements: Comparative Perspectives - UK Professor Jim Longhurst and Mrs Nicky Woodfield Air Quality Research Group University of the West of England, Bristol, UK Reducing the Impact of Vehicles on Air & Environmental Quality in Cities Session 4: Planning and Implementation Constraints January 2004, Mexico City

2 Air Quality Research Group, U.W.E., Bristol, UK Action Planning for Air Quality Improvements: Comparative Perspectives - UK Air Quality Management Introduction to European & UK Frameworks Air Quality Action Plans & Strategies Importance of Planning Frameworks & Governance UK Experiences Experiences from International Programmes Conclusions & key messages

3 Air Quality Research Group, U.W.E., Bristol, UK What is Air Quality Management ? The application of a systematic approach to the control of air quality issues in which all the factors determining air quality are considered in an integrated, proportionate and cost-effective manner based upon sound science and by reference to health-effects based air quality criteria.

4 Air Quality Research Group, U.W.E., Bristol, UK The Problem Air quality problems have been an inescapable partner of economic development. Our social, political and economic responses to air pollution have often lagged behind our awareness and understanding of the impact of pollution.

5 Air Quality Research Group, U.W.E., Bristol, UK The UK Problem National policies struggling to address air quality consequences of growth in vehicle numbers & mileage From 17.4 to 26.7m registrations between 1986 & % of journeys by mileage are made by car Balancing public expectations of personal mobility & accessibility, with clean atmosphere posing no risk to public health Improved fuel efficiency, introduction of catalytic converters, improved vehicle technologies, but:

6 Air Quality Research Group, U.W.E., Bristol, UK Air Quality Management in Europe Ambient Air Quality Assessment & Management Directive 96/62/EC Framework under which EU agrees Limit Values (Daughter Directives) European Directives transposition into Member State legislation Limit Values legally binding Specific locations designated for action Action Plan at national level

7 Air Quality Research Group, U.W.E., Bristol, UK Problems for Europe Urban traffic congestion costs in excess of €100B each year (likely to double over next 10 years) Local and trans-boundary pollution and subsequent health impacts impose similar costs Urban transport contributes  14% of all CO 2 generated in Europe DISTILLATE Scoping Proposal 2003: University of Leeds, University of York, University of Westminster, U.W.E., Bristol, TRL Ltd.

8 Air Quality Research Group, U.W.E., Bristol, UK UK Air Quality Regime: A Case Study Primary legislation - Environment Act 1995 National Air Quality Strategy Health-based air quality objectives Scientific periodic Review and Assessment Local implementation by local authorities Identification of Air Quality Management Areas Action Plans in locations where objectives are not going to be met

9 Air Quality Research Group, U.W.E., Bristol, UK Outcomes from UK experience ~25% of UK local authorities with AQMAs Predicted exceedences of the National Air Quality Objectives: 91% (NO 2 ), 45% (PM 10 ), 6% (SO 2 ) Emission sources: 95% traffic, 9% industrial, 1% domestic, some shipping problems London Boroughs, small market towns, rural hotspots, motorway corridors More effective communication, collaboration and consultation between and within tiers of government and with stakeholders has emerged

10 Air Quality Research Group, U.W.E., Bristol, UK Lessons learnt from the UK Elements of the process judged to work well –training provision & support, –guidance, internet support, –high quality monitoring network Not enough integration with wider policies & plans at national, regional and local levels (i.e. transport planning, land-use planning, community planning, Local Agenda 21 or sustainability Plans ) Timescales of AQM process & transport planning (5-year cycles) & land-use planning (10-20 years) are very different

11 Air Quality Research Group, U.W.E., Bristol, UK Air Quality Action Planning Action Planning Procedures

12 Air Quality Research Group, U.W.E., Bristol, UK Air Quality Action Planning To clarify overall extent of AQO exceedences and declare AQMA(s) Undertake Further Review of air quality within the AQMA(s) Consider specific criteria:  air quality improvement actually required  source apportionment  early consideration of potential options & their cost- effectiveness  practicalities of implementing option Evaluating & monitoring effectiveness of Plan

13 Air Quality Research Group, U.W.E., Bristol, UK Air Quality Action Planning Industry regulators, trunk road operators, health authorities all need to be involved Air quality improvements will require integration with a variety of policy packages Local Transport Plans, Local Plans, Sustainability Plans, Community Planning Regional Planning: Economic Development, Health Action Zones Importance of collaboration & integration of wider policies

14 Air Quality Research Group, U.W.E., Bristol, UK Air Quality Strategies Help ensure air quality considerations accounted for across all local authority policies and procedures Address non-Strategy pollutants (e.g. greenhouse gases, dioxins, dusts Provide framework for reviewing new pollutants, new air quality objectives, review of National Air Quality Strategy Take into account the increasing understanding of science and technology and socio-economic issues Importance & Significance of non-statutory opportunities

15 Air Quality Research Group, U.W.E., Bristol, UK Air Quality Strategies Address regional pollution sources (major highways, airports, industrial complexes) Inclusion of regional policies & planning processes –Environment Agency Zones of Industrial Pollution –Regional Planning Processes –Health Implementation Plans Help foster partnership between & within local authorities

16 Air Quality Research Group, U.W.E., Bristol, UK Importance of Planning Frameworks Air quality as a material planning consideration Consideration of a development’s likely effect in terms of direct emissions & traffic generated emissions Land-use planning frameworks – Strategic Planning – Local, Unitary & Structure Planning – Master Planning, Development Control Transport Planning Frameworks – Local Transport Plans Role of Planning in Action Plans & Strategies

17 Air Quality Research Group, U.W.E., Bristol, UK Multi-layered Governance in the UK Central Government & Devolved Administrations –Department of Environment, Food & Rural Affairs (Defra) –Department for Transport (DfT) –Ten Year Transport Plan Regional Government –Regional Planning Local Government –Unitary, one-tier, two-tier government –Local Planning (Local, Unitary and Structure Plans) –Local Transport Plans Plan overload !

18 Air Quality Research Group, U.W.E., Bristol, UK Towards Sustainable Cities... ‘City managers must seek to meet the social and economic needs of urban residents while respecting local, regional and global natural systems, solving problems locally where possible, rather than shifting them to other spatial locations or passing them on to the future’. The European Sustainable Cities Report (europa.eu.int/comm/environment/urban/home_en.htm)

19 Air Quality Research Group, U.W.E., Bristol, UK Action Planning: Tackling the transport problem Focus on reducing numbers of vehicles and reducing demand for road space Emission control measures –Engine efficiency & cleaner fuels –Fiscal measures & advice –Low Emission Zones Traffic management measures or combination –Public transport initiatives –Telematic technology Local Actions

20 Air Quality Research Group, U.W.E., Bristol, UK Traffic Emissions: Engine Efficiency & Cleaner Fuels EU Auto-Oil programme introduced increasingly stringent emissions standards for cars & light vans being applied to all new vehicles (Euro III from 2001 and Euro IV from 2006) Earlier Euro I & II helped reduce emissions of PM 10 and NOx from road transport by 50% between 1990 & 2000 The trend expected to slow down considerably from 2010 though, as engine & fuel improvements offset by continuing traffic growth

21 Air Quality Research Group, U.W.E., Bristol, UK Traffic Emissions: Fiscal Measures & Advice UK Government use of cleaner fuels & engines through domestic lower tax bands for cleaner fuels & cheaper road tax for smaller-engined cars Cleaner Vehicles Task Force (CVTF) advises on specific measures to reduce emissions from vehicles (government greener fleet certification scheme) to make business-related transport more efficient Powershift provides grants to help companies & individuals convert conventional vehicles to run on alternative fuels

22 Air Quality Research Group, U.W.E., Bristol, UK Emission Control Measures & Transport Management Measures Emission controls: –End of pipe technology (fitting particle traps) –Alternative fuel use (e.g. LPG, methane or hydrogen) –Enforcing emissions standards (e.g. Low Emission Zone) Transport Management Measures: –Public transport improvements (Park & Ride, bus priority lanes, Bus Quality Partnerships) –Parking permits –Telematic technology to link urban traffic control systems with local air quality management systems –Electronic charging

23 Air Quality Research Group, U.W.E., Bristol, UK Action Planning: Local Actions Promoting mixed-use developments Planning measures –Home Zones, 20mph zones, Clear Zones –Local Plans, Local Transport Plans Access Restrictions –Low Emission Zones, Congestion Charging –Pedestrian areas,local traffic calming –High Pollution Episodes Traffic Control – Urban Traffic Management & Control systems (UTMC) – Parking Restrictions, speed limits

24 Air Quality Research Group, U.W.E., Bristol, UK Action Planning: Local Actions Local campaigns Green Travel Plans Local actions to address school runs Health Improvement Programmes Local emissions testing Work-place parking

25 Air Quality Research Group, U.W.E., Bristol, UK Examples of International Programmes ASIA URBS: Improving Management and Supporting Guidelines in Air Quality in Metropolitan Cities (Bangkok, Athens and Bristol) (2 year project) DISTILLATE: Design and Implementation Support Tools for Integrated Local Land Use, Transport and the Environment (UK) (Scoping study completed - 4 year programme) INTEGAIRE: Integrated Urban Governance and Air Quality Management in Europe (9 cities) (3 year project)

26 Air Quality Research Group, U.W.E., Bristol, UK ASIA URBS Improving Management & Supporting Guidelines in Air Quality in Metropolitan Cities (Bangkok, Athens & Bristol) A Strategy to improve mutual awareness & understanding between European Union & Asia – Raise the profile of Europe in Asia & enhance economic co- operation between the two continents – Promote decentralisation (city-to-city) co-operation between the two regions Two main aims: – To provide co-funding to local government partnerships to undertake urban development projects – To encourage the networking of these projects to share knowledge and experience

27 Air Quality Research Group, U.W.E., Bristol, UK ASIA URBS OBJECTIVES: To improve local understanding of AQM in all 3 cities To establish mechanisms for exchange of Best Practice in air quality management between partners To train representatives from Bangkok in European AQM techniques To produce series of Best Practice guidance for Bangkok’s administration To assist Bangkok in producing a local Air Quality Action Plan

28 Air Quality Research Group, U.W.E., Bristol, UK DISTILLATE Design and Implementation Support Tools for Integrated Local Land Use, Transport and the Environment Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) consortia to study Sustainable Urban Form 1 of 4 consortia to work with industry & government to develop fundamental understanding of key land- use & transport sustainability issues... ‘ Focusing on the development of novel and enhanced design, appraisal and implementation tools & on the integrated approaches to which they would be applied’

29 Air Quality Research Group, U.W.E., Bristol, UK DISTILLATE AIM: to undertake research with local authorities and related organisations to achieve a step change in development & delivery of sustainable integrated urban transport & land-use strategies PRINCIPLE OBJECTIVE: to develop ways of overcoming the barriers to effective implementation of sustainable schemes TASKS: to identify barriers & priorities for overcoming them; identity appropriate case studies

30 Air Quality Research Group, U.W.E., Bristol, UK INTEGAIRE Integrated Urban Governance & Air Quality Management in Europe To improve the quality of life in all cites and towns, while promoting sustainable development assessed in economic, environmental, social & cultural terms Facilitating a better understanding of urban decision-making Improve urban air quality (AQ) management through recommendations on –urban governance –integration of AQ management with land-use & transport planning –implementation of the new EU AQ legislation.

31 Air Quality Research Group, U.W.E., Bristol, UK INTEGAIRE Recommendations developed for 3 target groups: Cities: recommendations for air quality professionals aimed at improving good practice at the urban level Clean Air For Europe (CAFÉ): recommendations aim at improving the usefulness and effectiveness of EU level measures fir the urban level. Research Community and DG Research at the European Commission: recommendations for future research needs

32 Air Quality Research Group, U.W.E., Bristol, UK Certain elements are clearly transferable Health-based objectives and risk-based approach LAQM can be integrated into objectives of decentralisation Need to consider rapid socio-economic & political changes Institutional arrangements critical to the success National support structures –prescriptive guidance, training –monitoring networks Potential for Application of UK regime in Non-European Cities

33 Air Quality Research Group, U.W.E., Bristol, UK Action Planning Challenges 57% of Londoners think London is unhealthy to live in 50% see AQ as a priority for London Mayor Action Plans are inevitably determined by local circumstances Assessing wider socio-economic impacts challenging Significant transport initiatives or major decreases in industrial emissions will be required to achieve the objectives (Air Quality Strategy for London)

34 Air Quality Research Group, U.W.E., Bristol, UK Action Planning Conclusions Localised problems require unique packages of measures - few situations where one measures will solve the local air quality problem Support of politicians vital Cost-effectiveness of actions is an important consideration Urban locations not the only focus of problem areas Think about funding and resources early in the process

35 Air Quality Research Group, U.W.E., Bristol, UK Useful references UK Official Government Guidance on Developing Action Plans and Strategies Informal guidance on Air Quality Action Planning (National Society for Clean Air & Environmental Protection)

36 Air Quality Research Group, U.W.E., Bristol, UK Final message... (Thanks to York City Council, UK)


Download ppt "Air Quality Research Group, U.W.E., Bristol, UK Action Planning for Air Quality Improvements: Comparative Perspectives - UK Professor Jim Longhurst and."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google