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Chapter 16 Energy Concepts. OBJECTIVES:  Describe energy, power and the units used to measure them.  Apply the laws of thermodynamics.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 16 Energy Concepts. OBJECTIVES:  Describe energy, power and the units used to measure them.  Apply the laws of thermodynamics."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 16 Energy Concepts

2 OBJECTIVES:  Describe energy, power and the units used to measure them.  Apply the laws of thermodynamics.

3 ENERGY AND POWER  Energy = ability to do work (transfer heat). Kinetic energy – motion Kinetic energy – motion Potential energy – stored Potential energy – stored joule, calorie, British thermal unit, kilowatt- hour joule, calorie, British thermal unit, kilowatt- hour  Power = rate watt (kW, MW) watt (kW, MW)

4 Fig. 2-13, p. 44 Low-temperature heat (100°C or less) for space heating Moderate-temperature heat (100–1,000°C) for industrial processes, cooking, producing steam, electricity, and hot water Very high-temperature heat (greater than 2,500°C) for industrial processes and producing electricity to run electrical devices (lights, motors) Mechanical motion to move vehicles and other things) High-temperature heat (1,000–2,500°C) for industrial processes and producing electricity Dispersed geothermal energy Low-temperature heat (100°C or lower) Normal sunlight Moderate-velocity wind High-velocity water flow Concentrated geothermal energy Moderate-temperature heat (100–1,000°C) Wood and crop wastes High-temperature heat (1,000–2,500°C) Hydrogen gas Natural gas Gasoline Coal Food Electricity Very high temperature heat (greater than 2,500°C) Nuclear fission (uranium) Nuclear fusion (deuterium) Concentrated sunlight High-velocity wind Source of Energy Relative Energy Quality (usefulness) Energy Tasks

5 ENERGY LAWS: TWO RULES WE CANNOT BREAK  1st law of thermodynamics: we cannot create or destroy energy.  2nd law of thermodynamics: energy quality always decreases. Chemical energy (food) Solar energy Waste Heat Waste Heat Waste Heat Waste Heat Mechanical energy (moving, thinking, living) Chemical energy (photosynthesis)

6 Application I One pound (lb) of bituminous coal contains 12,000 BTUs of energy. Suppose a coal ‑ fired power plant needs 3,600 BTU's of heat to produce one kilowatt ‑ hour of electricity. This plant has a 1 Megawatt output. Showing all steps, calculate the following: A. How much coal is required to produce one kilowatt ‑ hour of electricity? B. How much coal must be burned to keep the plant at full output for 24 hours?

7 Application II The conventional gasoline ‑ powered 2004 Honda Civic is one of the best gas ‑ powered cars in its class for mileage. The conventional Honda Civic gets 35 MPG during city driving (40 MPG Freeway). When the exact same car is given a hybrid ‑ electric engine, mileage is 47 MPG city and 48 MPG Freeway. $21, 000 is the cost of the Honda Civic Hybrid, $16,000 is the cost of the Honda Civic conventional, depending on features. You plan to drive mostly in the city, to and from work and for weekend errands. You expect to drive 8,000 miles a year in city driving, plus another 4,000 miles in longer trips that would count as "highway." A.) How much would you spend on gas for the hybrid Civic in a year, assuming gas cost $2.50 a gallon? B.) How much would you spend on gas for the conventional Civic in a year, assuming gas cost $2.50 a gallon? C.) How long would it take for the savings in gas costs to offset the increase in the price of the hybrid Civic?

8 Application II A.) How much would you spend on gas for the hybrid Civic in a year, assuming gas cost $2.50 a gallon?

9 Application II B.) How much would you spend on gas for the conventional Civic in a year, assuming gas cost $2.50 a gallon?

10 Application II C.) How long would it take for the savings in gas costs to offset the increase in the price of the hybrid Civic?

11 FRQ Answer the questions below regarding the heating of a house in the Midwestern United States. Assume the following. The house has 2,000 square feet of living space. The house has 2,000 square feet of living space. 80,000 BTU’s of heat per square foot are required to heat the house for winter. 80,000 BTU’s of heat per square foot are required to heat the house for winter. Natural gas is available at a cost of $5.00 per thousand cubic feet. Natural gas is available at a cost of $5.00 per thousand cubic feet. One cubic foot of natural gas supplies 1,000 BTU’s of heat energy. One cubic foot of natural gas supplies 1,000 BTU’s of heat energy. The furnace in the house is 80 percent efficient. The furnace in the house is 80 percent efficient. A. Calculate the following, showing all the steps of your calculations, include units. The number of cubic feet of natural gas required to heat the house for one winter. The number of cubic feet of natural gas required to heat the house for one winter. The cost of heating the house for one winter. The cost of heating the house for one winter. B. Identify and describe three actions the residents of the house could take to conserve heat energy and lower the cost of heating the house. C. The residents decide to supplement the heating of the house by using a wood-burning stove. Discuss two environmental impacts, one positive and one negative, of using the wood-burning stove.

12 FRQ A. Calculate the following, showing all the steps of your calculations, include units. The number of cubic feet of natural gas required to heat the house for one winter. The number of cubic feet of natural gas required to heat the house for one winter. The cost of heating the house for one winter. The cost of heating the house for one winter.

13 OBJECTIVES:  Describe energy, power and the units used to measure them.  Apply the laws of thermodynamics.


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