Presentation on theme: "Standardized Units Pages"— Presentation transcript:
1Standardized Units Pages 101-112 2-BSection 2BStandardized UnitsPages
2Standardized Unit Systems 2-BStandardized Unit SystemsMetric system (SI)Système InternationalU.S. customary system (USCS)Roots from ancient Middle Eastern civilizationsEgyptians, Sumerians, Babylonian's, Hebrews.“inch” from Latin uncia = “thumb-width” -- most adult feet are 12 thumb-widths (Romans!)“mile” from Latin milia passum = “one thousand paces”King Henry I ( ) first to standardize the “yard”. Today –by law 1 inch is defined to be exactly 2.54 cm.Unit conversions within systems.Unit conversions between systems.
3U.S. Customary System - Lengths 2-BU.S. Customary System - Lengthspage101Table in text – page Also on web, and given as handout.
4U.S. Customary System - Weights 2-BU.S. Customary System - Weightspage102Table in text – page 102
5U.S. Customary System - Volumes 2-BU.S. Customary System - Volumespage102Table in text – page Also on web, and given as handout.
6Conversions within USCS 2-BConversions within USCSEx1/103 In the Kentucky Derby, horses race 10 furlongs. How many miles is this?
7Conversions within USCS 2-BConversions within USCSEx1/103 In 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea, does the title refer to an ocean depth?[convert marine leagues to miles]
8Conversions within USCS 51’/114 If 150 bushels of wheat are traded on one day, how many cubic inches are traded? how many cubic feet?
9International Metric System 2-BInternational Metric SystemInvented in France, late 18th centuryReplace many customary units with a few basic unitsSimplify conversions by using a base 10 system
10International Metric System 2-BInternational Metric SystemThe basic units are:meter (m) for lengthgram (g) for masssecond (s) for timeliter (L) for volume
11Metric System - Prefixes 2-BMetric System - PrefixesTable in text – page Also on web, and given as handout.5.23 m523 cmkm
12Conversions within Metric System 2-BConversions within Metric SystemConvert 19 decimeters to millimeters:conversion or decimal movement:1900 millimetersConvert 1378 g to kg:1.378 kg
13USCS - Metric Conversions 2-BUSCS - Metric ConversionsUSCS to MetricMetric to USCS1 in. = cm1 cm = in.1 ft = m 1 m = 3.28 ft1 yd = m1 m = yd1 mi = km1 km = mi1 lb = kg1 kg = lb1 fl oz = mL1 mL = fl oz1 qt = L1 L = qt1 gal = L1 L = galTable in text – page Also on web, and given as handout.
14Conversions between Metric and USCS 60*/114 Convert 1550 millimeters to yards.63/114 Convert 45 liters to gallons.65/114 Convert 8550 square feet to square meters.67/114 Convert 10 kilograms per cubic meter to pounds per cubic foot.
15More Practice103/117 You see oranges in an Italian market priced at 0.8 euro per kilogram. What is the price in dollars per pound?105/117 A French car manufacturer claims that its newest economy model has gas “mileage” of 20 kilometers per liter. What is the gas mileage in miles per gallon?
162-BHomework2B – Part IPages#48,50,60,62,68,104,106
17Temperature Units Fahrenheit (US) Celsius (International) 2-BTemperature UnitsFahrenheit (US)Water freezes at 32ºF, boils at 212ºFCelsius (International)Water freezes at 0ºC, boils at 100ºCKelvin (Scientific)Water freezes at K, boils at KColdest known temperature = 0 Kelvin( ºF = ºC)
18Converting Temperatures (page107) 2-BConverting Temperatures (page107)To Convert fromConversion FormulaCelsius to Fahrenheit F = 1.8C + 32Fahrenheit to CelsiusC = (F-32)/1.8Celsius to KelvinK = CKelvin to CelsiusC = K
192-BExampleEx6/108 A ‘normal’ human temperature is 98.6ºF What is that in Celsius and Kelvin?98.6o F = 37o C = o K
20Energy and Power2-BEnergy is what makes matter move or heat up. The international unit of energy is the joule.Power is the rate at which energy is used. The international metric unit of power is the watt, defined asA kilowatt-hour is a unit of energy and1 kWh = joules = 3.6 million joules1 kw x 1hr = 1000j/s x 60s/m x 60m/hr x 1 hr
212-B93/116 Your refrigerator uses an average power of 350 watts, and your utility company charges 10 cents per kilowatt-hour of energy. How much does it cost to run your refrigerator for a year?Conversion: 350 watts is .350 kilowatts (why?) Usage per year in kilowatt-hours:.350 kilowatts x 24 hours/ 1 day x 365 days/1 year= 3066 kilowatt-hours / year Cost per year: kilowatt-hours / year x .10 $ / 1 kilowatt-hour= $ per year
22Units of Density/Concentration 2-BUnits of Density/ConcentrationDensity (e.g. material, population) – describes compactness or crowding.material: mass/volume (g/cm3)Population: people/mi2Concentration (e.g. pollutants, BAC) describes the amount of one substance mixed with another.pollutants: ppmBAC: g/100mL (legal limit is 0.08g/100mL)Material density = mass per unit volume i.e. grams per cubic centimeter.Density of water is 1g/cc. Less dense objects float in water, objects with a higher density will sink.Population density = number of people per unit area
232-BExampleEx9/111-2 Manhattan Island has a population of ≈ 1.5 million people living in an area of about 57 km2. What is its population density? How much space is available per person?1,500,000/57 = – need to mention the rounding here.
24Example (for fun) Ex9/111-2(cont.) How much space is that per person? 2-BExample (for fun)Ex9/111-2(cont.) How much space is that per person?Which is roughly 6m×6m, or 20 ft × 20 ftRecall 1m = 3.28 ft. 6x3.28 = 19.68
252-BExampleEx10/112 An average-sized man has about 5L of blood, and an average 12-ounce beer contains 15g of alcohol. If all the alcohol were immediately absorbed into the bloodstream, what would his BAC be?Legal limit is 0.08g/100mL – this is almost 4 times the legal limit!In reality, the man’s blood alcohol content won’t get this high from a single beer because it take some time for the alcohol to be absorbed and because it is gradually eliminated from the system. (It is eliminated at a rate of about 10-15g/hour).
26More Practice79/114 The land area of the US is about 3.5 million square miles, and the population is about 280 million people. What is the average population density?83/114 A typical glass of wine contains about 20 grams of alcohol. Consider a 110-pound woman, with approximately 4 liters of blood who drinks two glasses of wine. Assuming immediate absorption, what is her BAC?
272-BHomework2B – Part IIPages#70, #72, #80, #84, #94