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Chapter 2 Enroute/Aera Charts §2.1 Introduction §2.2 Layout of Enroute Charts §2.3 Navaids §2.4 Airway/Route components §2.5 Airports §2.7 Boundaries §2.8.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2 Enroute/Aera Charts §2.1 Introduction §2.2 Layout of Enroute Charts §2.3 Navaids §2.4 Airway/Route components §2.5 Airports §2.7 Boundaries §2.8."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 2 Enroute/Aera Charts §2.1 Introduction §2.2 Layout of Enroute Charts §2.3 Navaids §2.4 Airway/Route components §2.5 Airports §2.7 Boundaries §2.8 Holding Pattern §2.9 Communication Procedures §2.10 Area Charts §2.11 RNAV Enroute Charts §2.12 Legends of Enroute Charts

2 The information in enroute charts includes: Airway sturcture Controlled airspace limitation Navaids Airports Communication frequencies Minimum enroute altitude (MEA)/Minimum obstacle clearance altitude (MOCA)

3 Mileage Reporting points Special used airspace (SUA) Other required information

4 § Type of Enroute Charts 1.Low altitude enroute charts 2.High altitude enroute charts 3. High/low altitude enroute charts 4. Area charts

5 §2.1.2 New Format Charts

6 §2.1.3 Selecting an Enroute Chart The first step, however, is to turn to the Enroute Tab in your Airway Manual. The Enroute Table of Contents page found behind this tab lists the various pages relating to enroute operations filed in your manual.

7 代码全称图幅编号 E(HI) 欧洲 EUROPE 高空航路图 1-15 E(LO) 欧洲 EUROPE 低空航路图 1-15 E(H/L) 欧洲 EUROPE 高 / 低空航路图 3-4 US(HI) 美国 UNITED STATES 高空航路图 1-8 、 2A/2B US(LO) 美国 UNITED STATES 低高空航路图 1-52 US(LO)N E 美国东北沿海 NORTHEAST COASTAL 低空航路图 1-2 US(LO)S E 美国东南沿海 SOUTHEAST COASTAL 低空航路图 1-2 CA(HI) 加拿大 - 阿拉斯加 CANADA-ALASKA 高空航路图 1-6 CA(LO) 加拿大 - 阿拉斯加 CANADA-ALASKA 低空航路图 1-9 CA(H/L) 加拿大 - 阿拉斯加 CANADA-ALASKA 高 / 低空航路图 AK(LO) 阿拉斯加 ALASKA 低空航路图 1-4 、 AT(HI)-5 AT(H/L) 大西洋 ATLANTIC OCEAN 高 / 低空航路图 1-5 P(H/L) 太平洋 PACIFIC OCEAN 高 / 低空航路图 1-4 LA(H/L) 拉丁美洲 LATIN AMERICA 高 / 低空航路图 1-8 AU(LO) 澳大利亚 AUSTRALIA 低空航路图 1-8 AU(HI) 澳大利亚 AUSTRALIA 高空航路图 9-10 AS(H/L) 澳大利亚 AUSTRALIA 高 / 低空航路图 1-8 A(HI) 非洲 AFRICA 高空航路图 1-8 A(H/L) 非洲 AFRICA 高 / 低空航路图 1-14 、 1A FE(H/L) 远东 FAR EAST 高 / 低空航路图 1-8 SA(HI) 南美 SOUTH AMERICA 高空航路图 1-8 SA(LO) 南美 SOUTH AMERICA 低空航路图 1-12 EA(H/L) 欧亚大陆 EURASIA 高 / 低空航路图 1-12 ME(H/L) 中东 MIDDLE EAST 高 / 低空航路图 1-14 ME(HI) 中东 MIDDLE EAST 高空航路图 1-2 CH(H/L) 中国 CHINA 高 / 低空航路图 1-4

8 U.S. low altitude Enroute chart index

9 U.S. High altitude Enroute chart index

10 §2.2 Layout of Enroute Charts §2.2.1 Front and Back Panel Front Panel

11 Back Panel

12 Information typically found on the front and back panel includes the: Heading Information Coverage Index Diagram Changes Note Communications Tabulations SUA Tabulations Cruising Altitudes/Levels Cross-Reference Notes

13 In addition to the region of coverage and chart type, the enroute chart heading information includes three important chart components: Number Scale Dates § Heading Information

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15 1.Chart boundaries 2.Major cities 3.Political/state boundaries 4.Time zones 5.Area chart 6.Chart usage statement § Coverage Index Diagram

16 § Change note A changes note highlights significant items that have been modified on the chart since the last revision for each chart.

17 § Communications Tabulations Each enroute chart contains a tabulation of air traffic control (ATC) communication services and frequencies within its coverage. The information includes frequencies and voice/radio call names for approach, departure, tower, and ground control, as well as services availability.

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19 图例含义(英文)含义(中文) BOLD NAME Voice call 呼号 Light Names / abbreviations Identifying names/abbreviations not used in radio call 识别名称 / 简缩语,不用于话音 通信 T Transmit only 只发射 G Guard only 只接收 * Part-time operation 部分时段工作 X On request 按要求 (R) Radar capability 雷达功能 C Clearance Delivery 放行许可 Cpt Clearance (Pre-taxi Proc.) 许可(滑行前程序) ZSSS p5D Charted location is shown by Area chart initials and/or by quarter panel number-letter combination. 区域图内主要机场的四字地名 代码和 / 或航路图分节索引代码 Separates multiple airports under a location name. 同一地名下多个机场中的某个 机场 SSB All HF communications listed below have single side band capability unless indicated otherwise. 除非另有说明,下表所列的所 有高频( HF )通信具备单边带 功能。 √ √ √ √

20 Communication information of any given geographic region is described in the Comm Tabs. In general, this information includes: City name Area chart code Code of the section of the panel Call name Communication services

21 P=Panel 4=The panel number B=The section of the panel

22 §2.2.3 Border Information

23 §2.2.4 Panel Navigation There is some panel navigation information in the enroute chart border. Once you have needed chart in hand, there are several ways to quickly find the information that you may need, including: ZIGDEX and Panel Numbers Enroute chart overlap indicators Area chart overlap indicators “To Notes”

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26 The Navaid components covered in this lesson include: Symbology Facility Information Boxes Communications §2.3 Navaids

27 VOR on Low and High/Low Charts VOR on High Charts VORTAC or VORDME TACAN or DME NDB on Low and High/Low Charts NDB on High Charts Compass Locator Localizer Marker beacons GPS as a substitute §2.3.1 Symbology

28 § VOR on Low and High/Low Charts Every VOR symbol on low and high/low enroute charts has a compass rose surrounding the location of the VOR and the 360° radial to indicate magnetic north.

29 § VOR on High Charts

30 The single line extending from the symbol corresponds to a 360°radial to indicate magnetic north. The small tick at the end of the line is used to measure magnetic courses with the PV- 5 plotter. § VORTAC or VORDME

31 Most TACAN stations without a co-located VOR can be used by civilian DME units. Pure TACANs do not have compass roses since the azimuth cannot be used by most civilian pilots. Jeppesen’s symbol, a serrated circle, represents both TACAN and DME facilities. § TACAN or DME

32 § NDB on Low and High/Low Charts NDBs are shown on Jeppesen Low and High/Low altitude enroute charts as a series of dots forming three concentric circles. The single line extending from the symbol corresponds to magnetic north. The small tick at the end of the line is used to measure magnetic bearings with the PV-5 plotter.

33 § NDB on High Charts For legibility purposes, on High and High/Low altitude enroute charts, Nondirectional Beacins(NDBs) symbols are reduced in size since the charts cover more area; that is, the scales are smaller than on Low charts. The magnetic north pointer on NDB symbol is included to make it easier to measure magnetic bearings with a plotter.

34 § Compass Locator Compass Locator symbols look similar to an NDB symbol. They are only shown on enroute charts when providing an enroute function or Transcribed Weather Broadcast (TWEB).

35 Localizers are usually employed to provide course and distance information with respect to a runway during an approach, but in some instances localizers may also be combined with other facilities, fixes, or reporting points to form an enroute intersection. § Localizer

36 Markers with collocated Locator or NDB Markers with collocated airspace fix or intersection § Marker beacons

37 §2.3.2 Facility Information Boxes The facility box gives the name, frequency, two- or three-letter identifier, and Morse code identification. Other information may also be displayed, such as coordinates, the class of VOR, and even available communications.

38 § On-Airway Navaid information is presented in a shadowed box when the navaid is an airway component. The name of the navaid, its frequency, identifier, and Morse code identification is noted. On-Airway VOR

39 Generally, various coverage of VOR are distinguished by letters preceding the Navaid frequencies. Such as: (T) —Terminal VOR (L) —Low Altitude VOR (H) —High Altitude VOR

40 On-Airway DME

41 On high/low enroute charts, latitude and longitude coordinates are shown at the bottom of the information box for high altitude navaids. High altitude Navaid

42 Some L/MF (low and medium frequency ) navaids are combined in the shadowed box even though they are not the part of the airway structure. They are used for course guidance for over lengthy route segments. Special L/MF Navaids

43 Charts depict localizers to indicate availability at airports. Localizer Navaids Performed an Enroute Function

44 § Off-Airway Navaids Off-airway navaids are unboxed on low and low/high enroute charts. On Low and Low/High Enroute Charts

45 Off-airway navaids are boxed without a shadow on high altitude enroute charts. On high Enroute Charts

46 TACAN facilities not associated with a VOR are listed with channel number and a VOR “ghost” frequency. The “ghost” frequency enables civilian users to access the DME signal. Coordinates are only shown on the high altitude charts. Off-airway TACAN

47 Navaids are used in the airway system but that are located at an airport may have the airport and the navaid information grouped together. The navaid frequency and identifier are located below the location name of airport when the navaid name, location name and airport name are the same. Navaids located at an airport

48 Marker beacon (or fan beacon) are shown on enroute charts if they identify a particular location along an airway or on the approach to an instrument landing. The marker beacon name and Morse code identification are shown next to the symbol. Marker beacon

49 § Notations “*”:An asterisk specifies part-time hours of operation. (DME not Collocated) (TACAN not Collocated): When the TACAN or DME antennae is not collocated with the VOR, this notation is shown below the VOR facility information box.

50 The airway information provided on charts, including: Airway types and designators Course guidance Airspace Fixes Mileage Altitudes §2.4 Airway/Route Components

51 § Airway to an Alternate Airport An airway may be identified by a dashed line, indicating route to an alternate airport.

52 § Overlying High Altitude Airway On low or high/low altitude charts, overlying high altitude airway are shown in green.

53 § RNAV Airway RNAV airway are depicted with a thick solid line on the enroute charts.

54 §2.4.2 Airway Types and Designators Airways are referred to by the letter and number designation shown along the airway on the enroute chart. Both the designators themselves, and the way they are depicted on the chart, provide information about the type of airway shown.

55 § Airway Designators Airway designators are shown in boxes along the airway they name. Many of these, such as victor airways and jet route, are shown with white letters in a black box for distinction.

56 航路代号 前缀 含义 A 琥珀色, Alpha 航路,南北主航路 ADR 咨询航路 AR 大西洋航路、加拿大 Alpha 航路 ATS 未公布识别代号,但提供 ATS 服务的指定航路 AWY 航路 B 兰色, Bravo 航路,南北支航路 BR 巴哈马航路、加拿大 Bravo 航路 D 直飞航路。需要 ATC 的许可,不可用于填报飞行计划 DOM 国内航路。外国经营人使用需特别批准。 G 绿色, Golf 航路,东西主航路 GR 海湾航路 H 高空航路 HL 高空航路 J 喷气机航路 K 主要为直升机划设的低空航路或者航线 NAT 与北大西洋组织航迹结构相联的航路 OTR 海洋过渡航路 PDR 预定航路 R 红色, Romeo 航路,东西支航路, RR 加拿大 R 航路 SP 超音速区域导航航路 U 高空航路。航路或者航线或者其中的部分航段划设在高空空域。 V Victor 航路 W 白色, Whiskey 航路 X 无 B-RNAV 配备的航空器所使用的航路(欧洲)

57 航路代号 后缀 含义 E 东 F 仅提供咨询服务 G 仅提供飞行情报服务 L 中低频航路 N 北 R 区域导航航路 S 南 UL 区域导航航路 V VOR 航路 W 西 Y 在飞行高度层 6000 米(含)以上的所需导航性能类型 1 ( RNP1 )的航路,字母 Y 表示航路上 30 至 90 度之间的所有转 弯必须在直线航段间正切圆弧允许的所需导航性能精度容差 内进行,并限定转弯半径为 42 公里; Z 在飞行高度层 5700 米(含)以下的所需导航性能类型 1 ( RNP1 )的航路,字母 Z 表示航路上 30 至 90 度之间的所有转 弯必须在直线航段间正切圆弧允许的所需导航性能精度容差 内进行,并限定转弯半径为 28 公里; 1 条件航路的类别(欧洲) 1,21,2 1,2,31,2,3

58 § One-way Airway Some airways allow only one-way traffic patterns. One-way airways are indicated with an arrow symbol. When hours are displayed below the one-way airway designation, it means that one-way traffic is preferred during the hours listed, but two-way traffic is allowed during all other hours.

59 § Pre-requirements Airway Some airways require the action of the pilot before you can fly them. A “PPR” along an airway centerline indicates that prior permission is required for flight in the direction of the accompanying arrow. You must obtain permission from the controlling agency before flying this type of airway. Airways with an “FPR” designation have a flight plan requirement that dictates you must file a flight plan before flying them.

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61 §2.4.3 Course Guidance VOR Radials NDB Bearings

62 VOR Radials

63 NDB Bearings

64 § MC and TC In most case, all kinds of courses on the charts are magnetic courses (MC). Course guidance in the high-latitude area, such north of the Canada, are based on true bearing. In this case, there are indicated with a “T” following the course numbers.

65 § Changeover Points When flying an airway, you normally change frequencies midway between navaids, unless a changeover point (COP) is designated. A COP is the point along an airway where the navaid frequency should be changed. COP symbology includes the mileage from each station to the COP.

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67 § Gap in Nav-signal Coverage A gap in nav-signal coverage, shown as two black rectangles along an airway, may cause a COP to be detached.

68 §2.4.4 Airway Fixes Airway fixes are simply designated locations along an airway or route that can provide a means for checking the progress of a flight. They are often located at points where the airway turns or at a place that provides a positive means of establishing a position. Intersections, waypoints, database identifiers, and reporting points, are all considered fixes.

69 The term “fix” is used here to describe an intersection, waypoint, reporting point, or any other designated point along an airway. However, there are differences between these terms: The location of intersections is determined by ground-based navaids. The exact position is given as a VOR radial (or NDB magnetic bearing) and the DME mileage from the navaid. § Types of Fixes

70 The term waypoint is generally reserved for positions that can only be determined by area navigation (RNAV) equipment or GPS. The exact location for a waypoint is shown as its lat/long geographic coordinates.

71 A fix may be based on one or more of the following: Intersection of two airways Intersection of two VOR radials, or NDB bearings Intersection located by DME Geographic coordinates 2. Location Mode

72 § Intersections Enroute charts identify most intersections with a triangle symbol. At a Navaid, a dot in the triangle symbol represents a fix collocated with a Navaid. Sometimes the triangle in the navaid symbol may be omitted. The name of the navaid represents the intersection name.

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74 The location of the intersection along an airway is typically defined by a radial from a VOR or a magnetic bearing to an NDB. An intersection can also be located by DME. These fixes are identified with a “D” and an arrow that points from the navaid to the fix. If it is unclear which navaid is the basis for the DME, the navaid identifier follows the DME distance.

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76 § Reporting Points The intersections of the airway are also named as reporting points. The reporting points can be used as air traffic controlling, altitude changing and approach transition points. Enroute charts depict most fixes as either noncompulsory or compulsory reporting points.

77 In a nonradar environment, pilots are required to make a position report when passing over a compulsory reporting point. These are identified on enroute charts by a solid triangle. Sometimes the same point can be compulsory and nomcompulsory, depending on which airway you are flying.

78 At noncompulsory reporting points, position reports are not required unless requested by a controller.

79 Along some routes, enroute charts indicate that a meteorological report is required upon crossing the intersection. The symbol for such a reporting point is a capital M with a circle around it. If the reporting point only applies to certain routes, the route will be annotated to the symbol.

80 A meteorological report is made to the controlling ground station (or to another station if indicated), and should include the following items: Air temperature Wind Icing Turbulence Clouds Any other significant weather

81 § CNFs [Database Identifiers] and Mileage Break Points Computer Navigation Fixes (CNFs) are used for defining the navigation track for an airborne computer system (e.g., GPS or FMS). A CNF is generated by the onboard database and displayed on the avionics screen. On the enroute chart, CNFs are enclosed in brackets or indicated with an “X”, to aid in identifying them. Sometimes, they are further identified by geographic coordinates.

82 A mileage break point indicates a point where the course changes direction, but no fix is indicated. It is shown on the chart as “×” on the airway and it is used to isolate segments when no published fixe exists. Beginning in 1998, the United States and other countries began assigning five-letter names to previously unnamed fixes and mileage break points on DPs, enroute and area charts, and STARs.

83 CNFs are not used in position reporting, ATC requests, or for flight planning purposes.

84 § Waypoints A waypoint is designated by a star symbol (  ). Waypoints are defined relative to a VORTAC or VORDME, or in terms of lat/long coordinates. Waypoints may be any of the following types: Predefined, published waypoints Floating waypoints User-defined waypoints

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86 § Bypass When an airway passes over a fix that is not used for course guidance or reporting, the airway centerline sometimes passes around, or bypasses the symbol. In rare cases, an airway turns at a fix without using it. Sometimes, an explanatory note on the chart clarifies the proper use of the fix.

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88 §2.4.5 Mileage Segment Mileage Total Mileage between Two Navaids

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90 §2.4.6 Altitudes Minimum enroute altitude (MEA) Minimum obstruction clearance altitude (MOCA) Enroute minimum off-route altitude (Enroute MORA) Maximum authorized altitude (MAA) Minimum crossing altitude (MCA) Minimum reception altitude (MRA) Even and odd altitudes

91 The minimum enroute altitude (MEA) is the most common airway altitude shown on charts. It is ordinarily the lowest published altitude between radio fixes that guarantees adequate navigation signal reception and obstruction clearance (2,000 feet in mountainous areas and 1,000 feet elsewhere). § MEA

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93 § MOCA MOCA is the lowest published altitude in effect between radio fixes on VOR airways, off airway routes, or route segments. A MOCA is similar to an MEA, but MOCA ensures a reliable navigation signal only within 22 nautical miles of the facility, whereas an MEA provides reliable navigation signals throughout the entire segment.

94 MOCA is shown by a “T” after the altitude. The obstruction clearance of MOCA is similar to MEA. That is 2,000 feet in mountainous areas and 1,000 feet elsewhere.

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96 A enroute MORA is an altitude derived by Jeppesen that provides reference point clearance within 10 NM of the airway centerline (regardless of the airway width) and fixes. Enroute MORA values clear all reference points by 2,000 feet in areas where the highest reference points are 5001 feet MSL or higher, while by 1,000 feet in areas where the points are 5000 feet MSL or lower. Enroute MORA are denoted by an altitude figure with an “a” suffix. § Enroute MORA

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98 § MAA A maximum authorized altitude (MAA) is a published altitude representing the maximum usable altitude or flight level for an airspace structure or route segment. It is the highest altitude on a Federal airway, jet route, RNAV low or high route, or other direct route for which an MEA is designated at which adequate reception of navigation signals is assured.

99 Maximum authorized altitude, shown by “MAA” followed by the altitude.

100 § MCA A minimum crossing altitude (MCA) is the lowest altitude at which an aircraft can cross the fix when proceeding in the direction of a higher minimum enroute IFR altitude (MEA). MCA indicated by “MCA” along with any necessary information, such as the affected airway and direction of flight.

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102 § MRA A minimum reception altitude (MRA) is the lowest altitude that ensures adequate reception of the navigation signals forming an intersection. MRA indicated by “MRA” along with any necessary information, such as the affected airway and direction of flight.

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104 §2.5 Airports Airport name and location Type of airport Airport elevation and runway information Weather and airport communications

105 §2.5.1 Airport name and location The location of the airport The airport name (if different from the name of the location) The ICAO (4 letters) or Jeppesen NavData airport identifier (3 alphanumeric characters)

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108 §2.5.2 Type of Airport VFR or IFR Civilian or Military Seaplane Base or Heliport

109 § VFR or IFR Airport Enroute charts group airports into two categories, IFR airport with at least one published standard instrument approach procedure (SIAP), VFR airport with none. Enroute charts always show airport symbology and its associated text in the same color.

110 Enroute charts display the IFR airport symbol and related information in blue. Location name of the IFR airport is indicated with capital letters. VFR airport symbol and related information display in green on enroute charts. Location name is indicated with lowercase.

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112 § Civilian or Military Airport § Seaplane Base or Heliport Airport

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115 §2.5.3 Airport Elevation and Runway Information In addition to the type of airport, the enroute chart may include additional information about the airport and its runways. Airport elevation is listed in feet MSL below the airport name. In addition to the elevation, two or three digits denote the length of the airport’s longest runway in hundreds of feet.

116 The figure is rounded to the nearest hundred with 70 feet as the dividing point. For example, a 6669-foot runway is listed as “66”, whereas a 6671-foot runway shows as “67”. An “s” after the runway length denotes a soft surface.

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118 §2.5.4 Weather and Airport Communications Above the airport name, enroute charts often provide more information about communications availability and requirements, as well as weather services available at that airport. The services and requirements are similar throughout the world, but differ by region in name and details.

119 U.S. and Canada Weather Information U.S. Airport Communications Canadian Airport Communications Airport Weather Information and Communications Outside the U.S. and Canada

120 §2.6 Airspace §2.6.1 Controlled and Uncontrolled Controlled: Controlled airspace is an area of defined dimensions within which air traffic control service is available. Controlled airspace is depicted with white background. Uncontrolled: Uncontrolled airspace is all airspace that is not controlled. Uncontrolled airspace is tinted gray on full-color enroute charts. Note that uncontrolled airspace over water is bule-gray.

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122 §2.6.2 Airspace Classifications Airspace is categorized into a variety of airspace classifications, denoted by letters. Although these ICAO designations are used in much of the world, the dimensions, equipment requirements, and restrictions for each airspace class often vary from country to country.

123 § ICAO Designations Class A is the most restrictive airspace classification and requires the most amount of pilot experience and control by ATC. All aircraft in Class A must be operated under IFR and the pilot must have and instrument rating. Class A Airspace

124 Class B airspace contains or covers the busiest air traffic environments to ensure more complete control over aircraft in congested airport environments. In Class B airspace, both IFR and VFR flight is permitted; however, both types are under Air Traffic Control and are separated from one another. The configuration of each Class B area is individually tailored to its airport environment. Class B Airspace

125 Both IFR and VFR flights are permitted and all flights are under Air Traffic Control Services in Class C Airspace. IFR traffic receives separation from both IFR and VFR flights, while VFR flights are only separated from IFR and receive traffic information concerning other VFR flights. Class C Airspace

126 Class D and E airspace are often associated with control towers around less busy airports. Often, Class E airspace lies adjacent to Class D to enable instrument pilots to remain within controlled airspace while performing an instrument approach. In fact, at airports with a part-time tower, Class D airspace may revert to Class E when the tower is closed. Class D/E Airspace

127 Class D airspace may be designated for terminal enroute purposes. In Class D airspace, all flights are subject to ATC service. IFR flights are separated from other IFR flights and receive traffic information concerning VFR flights. VFR flights receive traffic information concerning all other flights. Class D airspace

128 Class E airspace is generally designated for enroute. Most low-level airways are Class E, unless otherwise assigned. In Class E airspace, only IFR flights are subject to ATC service. IFR flights are separated from other IFR flights. All flights receive traffic information as far as practical. Class E airspace

129 § Airspace Classifications in China Upper Control Area, Medium and Lower Control Area, Terminal (Approach) Control Area, and Tower Control Area are set up on airway zones and civil airport regions in china. In most case, airspace is divided into class A, B, C and D airspace according to different control areas in china.

130 Class A Airspace is upper control area. The floor of Class A airspace corresponds to FL 6,000 (not including) meters. During flight within Class A airspace, pilots must comply with IFR and maintain separation from other aircrafts given by the ATC. Class A Airspace

131 Class B airspace is medium and lower controlled area, which extends from FL 600 meters to FL 6000 ( including) meters. You can operate within the Class B airspace either under VFR or under IFR according to meteorological condition. Class B Airspace

132 Class C Airspace extends from FL 600m to the ceiling of FL 6,000m (included), but laterally, it extends from the airport reference point to radius of 50 kilometers or the entrance of the air corridor (if exists). All of the flights in Class C Airspace can be complied with IFR or VFR. Class C Airspace

133 Class D Airspace is airport control zone airspace. Class D Airspace extends from ground to the first holding pattern level, includes traffic pattern region and segments after the FAF. All operations within Class D Airspace can be complied with IFR or VFR. Class D Airspace

134 § Airspace Classification in U.S. The classes of airspace were created and then specified in FAA FAR Part 71. Airspace is divided into class A, B, C, D, E, F and G in U.S.A.

135 Class A Airspace Class A airspace is the most restrictive and requires the most amount of pilot experience and control by ATC. In the United States, Class A airspace begins at 18,000 feet MSL and extends up to FL 600.

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137 Class B airspaces surround the nation’s busiest international airports. Aircrafts operating within Class B airspaces must be equipped with two-way radio communication system, and an available VOR or VORTAC receiver. A requirement for a 4096 code transponder with mode C automatic altitude reporting capability is associated with Class B airspace. Class B Airspace

138 Class C airspace is similar to Class B. About 120 airports belong to Class C airspace in U.S. The center of Class C airspace is the primary airport. This airspace usually consists of a 5 NM radius core surface area that extends from the surface up to 4,000 feet MSL. Two-way radio communications with the appropriate ATC facility are requited prior to entry this airspace. Class C Airspace

139 Airspace from the surface to 2,500 feet MSL surrounding those airports that have an operational control tower. Runway is the airspace center. Radius of airspace is 4.3 NM. Class D Airspace

140 Class E airspaces are controlled airspaces, extend from 700 or 1200 feet AGL to 18,000 feet MSL. Operation in this airspace can be complied with IFR or VFR. Class E Airspace

141 Class F airspace is uncontrolled airspace. Class F Airspace Class G Airspace The ceiling of Class G airspace is from surface to 700 or 1,200 feet AGL. Class G airspace (uncontrolled) is that portion of airspace that has not been designated as Class A, Class B, Class C, Class D, or Class E airspace.

142 § Controlled Airspaces on Enroute Charts Controlled airspace is depicted on an enroute chart by control area boundaries. On the boundary itself, you will find the specific airspace class of the airspace. Within the boundary, look for sector boundaries, as well as upper or lower limits of the airspace.

143 The control area boundary of Class A airspace is shown by a wide, maroon line. Class A Airspace

144 The control area boundary of Class B airspace is similar to Class A shown by a wide, maroon line. Lines appear under (lower limit) or over (upper limit) each limit indicating the limits of altitude in hundreds of feet MSL. Class B Airspace

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146 The control area boundary of Class C airspace is shown by a wide, blue line. Class C Airspace

147 The control area boundary of Class D/E airspace is shown by a thin, white dashed line. Class D/E Airspace

148 §2.6.3 Type of Designated Airspace In addition to airspace classifications, there are also types of designated airspace. Both use the same symbology. Types of designated airspace include: FIR/UIR CAT/UAT TMA CTR

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150 § FIR/UIR An FIR is a country’s area of responsibility for air traffic control and flight information. A country’s airspace always consists of at least one FIR, though a country may designate more than one within their area of responsibility. For example, airspace of china has been divided into 10 FIRs and 1 Area of Jurisdiction. There are Shenyang, Beijing, Shanghai, Kunming, Guangzhou, Wuhan, Lanzhou, Urumqi, Hongkong, and Taipei. Sanya is an Area of Jurisdiction.

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152 The FIR/UIR boundary name, identifier and airspace category are depicted on an enroute chart with a barbed line. For the limits of the FIR and UIR, you would refer to the front or back panel of your enroute chart in the designated airspace box.

153 § CAT/UAT Control Areas (CATs) and their counterparts, Upper Terminal Areas (UATs) are volumes airspace and UATs reside within upper airspace. Whereas FIRs are defined by the country, CTAs and UTAs represent areas of specific Air Traffic Control responsibility within the country’s FIR. In some countries, Air Traffic Control Centers (ACCs) or Air Route Traffic Control Centers (ARTCCs) serve the functions of CTAs/UTAs.

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155 Terminal Maneuvering Area (TMA) is normal established at the confluence of ATS routes in the vicinity of one or more major aerodromes. TMA provides safe and efficient air traffic control service for aircraft arrival and departure. TMA can be any types of airspace. On an enroute chart, TMA boundaries are depicted with a solid maroon or blue line. § TMA

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157 § CTR In contrast to Control Areas, airspace delegated to a control tower is called a Control Zone (CTR). CTRs generally begin at the surface and extend to a specific limit. CTR provides airport control service for appropriate aircraft. CTR boundaries, regardless of airspace classification, are depicted by a blue dashed line with airspace classification inset in the outline.

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159 Related to CTR are ATZ and TIZ. An aerodrome traffic zone (ATZ) is a term for specific airspace established around an airport for the protection of airport traffic. In an uncontrolled ATZ, aircraft broadcast intentions and listen on the standard enroute frequency. Uncontrolled ATZs are shown as solid lines. A traffic information zone (TIZ) is Class G airspace where continuous two-way communication is required.

160 §2.6.4 Special Use Airspace In addition to above-mentioned designated airspaces, enroute charts designate many types of special use airspaces (SUAs), which are belonged to uncontrolled airspaces, such as prohibited area, restricted area, warning area, etc. On enroute charts, SUAs are depicted with maroon and green dashed lines.

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164 Each special use area also has an accompanying label that indicates its country, with some exceptions, type of special use airspace, and identification number. When space allows, it may also list upper and lower limits, hours of operation, or the controlling agency on the chart. For special use airspace located in congested areas, enroute charts provide additional information on a separate list elsewhere on the chart.

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167 §2.7 Boundaries Enroute charts contain numerous boundary lines, depicting borders of airspace classes, countries, time zones, controlling agencies, and defense zones. This lesson explains the symbology for two broad categories of boundaries. Geographical boundaries identify political entities, time zones, and charted regions. Procedural boundaries depict areas with different procedures or requirements.

168 §2.7.1 Geographical Boundaries Enroute charts include specific designations for several types of geographic boundaries. Political boundaries Time zone Chart boundaries

169 § Political Boundaries Political boundaries identify international, state, or provincial borders. International boundaries are depicted with a broken black line on enroute charts. Often, political boundaries coincide with time zones, airspace, or procedural boundaries.

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172 Area charts, typically provided to cover high- traffic regions, are identified by shaded gray dashed lines.

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174 §2.8.1 Published Holding Patterns Published holding patterns will include the following information as appropriate: Holding fix Direction Leg length Altitude Speed Holding Patterns 2.8 Holding Patterns

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176 § Holding Fix A holding fix begins and ends each circuit of the holding pattern. A fix may be an intersection, navaid, waypoint, or DME distance from a navaid.

177 § Holding Direction A holding pattern is defined by the direction from the holding fix, a line of position on which to fly one leg of the pattern, and the direction of the turns. Shaped like an oval racetrack, holding patterns generally are of two types. In a standard holding pattern, the turns are to the right, while a nonstandard holding pattern uses left turns.

178 § Leg Length Generally, standard leg length of holding pattern depends on time of outbound. At or below 14,000 feet (4250 meters) MSL, the inbound and outbound legs are typically defined as 1-minute no-wind straight segments. Above 14,000 feet (4250 meters) MSL, the straight segments are 1.5 minutes long, or more with increment of 0.5 minute.

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180 § MHL If there is a minimum holding level associated with a holding pattern, it’s listed with the holding pattern symbol.

181 § Holding Speed Since the size of the holding pattern is directly proportional to the speed of the airplane, ATC limits the amount of airspace reserved for holding by imposing maximum holding speeds for specific altitude ranges. When holding patterns have additional speed restrictions to keep faster airplanes from flying out of the protected area, it lists the airspeed (IAS) limit.

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183 § Holding Instruction Pilot must execute holding procedure according to published holding pattern, unless he receive another instruction, if there is a published holding pattern on the chart. The instruction by ATC for a published holding pattern contains the following information: Direction to hold from the holding fix Holding Fix Expect further clearance (EFC) time

184 When approaching a clearance limit without holding instructions, pilot must execute the following specific procedures to maintain enough separation : Request further clearance before arrive holding fix Execute published holding procedure if not receive further clearance

185 §2.8.3 Holding Pattern Entry Procedure Generally, there are three holding pattern entry procedures that have been developed to enable you to get properly oriented on the holding course without excessive maneuvering. The type of entry pattern used depends on your magnetic heading relative to the holding course upon arrival at the holding fix.

186 Holding pattern entry sectors are established by imagining a line at 70° across the holding course. For example, if the holding course is the 090°radial from a VOR, the entry sectors are defined by a line through the fix coinciding with heading of 020° and 200°.

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