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Brain functions and kinematics Mostafa M. Dini July 2012.

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1 Brain functions and kinematics Mostafa M. Dini July 2012

2 static, dynamic and kinematic components of a brain activity Memory is the static part; the flow of free energy flow is the dynamic part; emotion and reasoning are the kinematic part and attention is a factor of continuity in kinematics. The inner, middle and frontal lobe are the attraction sites for driving; where the cortex is the bed-stream for the activities forward.

3 An activity pathway A pathway is the route for the sequent activities and receives a number of inputs and memories linked with many variety of memory pixels as the media; when the circuit of pixel memories are attracted by needs and complete the functional aspect of the activity. Attention and focus preserve the continuity of the activity by the connecting the memory pixels so that definite inputs and memories as the static milestones would be linked. Uniqueness, splitting, or sustainability of the attention depends on how complex is the interaction of the need and the environment and memorized circumstances (inputs and memories). Attention attractors can be unique or several depending on the complexity of the stressful inputs and attractors sensitivities. The stronger the attractors; the more automatic and straight the activity.

4 General functions of the brain Perception, cognition and action operation are the main functions of the brain as the kinematic part of the brain activities. Most of the time, these processes are not distinguished, but overlap each other; especially in more complicated brain activities. Perception and cognition are highly integrated and use the same attractor or attentional resources.

5 Perception Perception as the pre-perception stage is the sensory inputs receiving and screening processes. Screening would apply for the separation of the parts previously experienced and there is a saved memory for those pieces of the input from the parts that are new experiences and no previous saved memory exists for those parts. The screening process, which during that, the captured pictures are compared for available memories of the pieces, consists of resonating for the saved pieces and straining for the new entries. This part is the shared portion between perception and cognition processes.

6 Cognition Cognition functions are the mental processes which conclude in products like remembering, recognizing, understanding, problem solving or decision making. Basically attention effectiveness and memory recalling develop to advanced functions of language production and understanding, problem solving and decision making.

7 Supporting theories Due to changes in simultaneous firing pattern by the synapses configuration changes, cognition function is a function of the brain detail general structure in the level of neural network arrangement and their slight changes by stress forces, when active. alterations in brain structure and function are intimately tied to alterations in cognitive function. "Establishing such links between brain and cognition is the principal goal of cognitive neuroscience" and kinematics is successful to provide a fair descriptive model for such a link. Such a link according to kinematics, not only change by months and years, but fluctuating slightly during a day. the relationship between brain and cognition is a dynamic one and may change across the lifespan, The brain neural network changes depends on the type of functionality of different areas and kinematically, some areas are more effective than others. Furthermore, it firmly depends on the type and different daily experiences of the individual. Therefore, "age-related changes in brain structure and function are not uniform across the whole brain or across individuals". The brain tissues aging significantly changes the stress-strain behaviour, although it would be different for different parts of the brain. (Brain Aging: Models, Methods, and Mechanisms; Chapter 1Changes in Cognitive Function in Human Aging; Elizabeth L. Glisky; 2007)

8 Pathway determination Attention and memory functions as well as related processing speed in different locations determine the pathway for a brain activity. The attractors (including needs, desires and goals) combining with the environment circumstances and the action operator- orientation ( emotions, reasoning), all together have a determinative role in the neural route continuation as the pathway.

9 Attractors in a brain activity A brain activity can remain as a confined temporary strains along a building its working memory. It can become a short memory when the following stress relaxation of the dreaming equalizes the layer; otherwise will be erased (forgotten). However, a "working memory is really a divided attention task“ for the next activities. Emotional (automatic) attractors are located in the amygdala, the attention attractors are hosted in the prefrontal cortex. The "role for dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) in the manipulation and updating of information in working memory, with left PFC involved more in verbal tasks and right PFC in visuospatial tasks". Reduction of attentional resources is either due to increase of emotional drives and deficient perception and cognition processes. However, the activities need less or no attention like automatic tasks would remain unaffected too. Attractors for a pathway configuration and networks selection in a pathway are needs, emotions and attention. (Brain Aging: Models, Methods, and Mechanisms; Chapter 1Changes in Cognitive Function in Human Aging; Elizabeth L. Glisky; 2007)

10 Memory in the brain; inputs entries in to the brain As static part of a mentation, memories like a real object in environment have location and time orientations. An excitation that correlate the time and space to remind a memory is the virtual circumstance that an emotion creates that. Similarly, an excitation that correlate the time and space to create an image is the virtual circumstance that a reasoning creates that. Reminding a memory evokes an emotion or a reasoning connection; and an emotion or a reasoning connection recalls a memory; when the attractors (needs) and circumstance are the source of an emotion. There are different types of memories with emotion or reasoning attachments including: episodic memory (memory of the experienced events in a particular place and time and are attached to a kind of emotion); semantic memory (the made integrated knowledge or explanatory philosophy about the environment, which are not attached to a place or a specific time); autobiographical memory (one's past history of life including episodic and semantic memories); implicit memory (memory of the same family memories which provide a collective pattern or a trained procedure to follow in similar cases unconsciously); prospective memory (memory of those are planned to do).

11 Memories site locations The specific memories as episodic memory are hypothesized that located in hippocampus; while collective memories like the semantic memory should be located somewhere in the frontal lobe. The implicit memories are functional memories and are mapped over brain outer layer. The results of the brain activities (like decisions or plans to do works) are located similarly in some areas of the frontal lobe and would store the result as a working memory. By such assigning memories to different structure all over the brain, it can be theorized that the neural networks are the sites for different types of memories and the memory individuality depends on how the housing structural configuration is rigid or flexible. The more rigid; the more static (like facts and events). The more flexible; the more implicit or collective memories.

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