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Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1 Chapter 4 Human Development.

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1 Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1 Chapter 4 Human Development

2 Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 4-2 Exploring Human Development What is Development? –How people change Quantitative Qualitative –But, some things remain the same –The pattern of change in human capabilities that begins at conception and continues throughout the lifespan

3 Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 4-3 Biological, Cognitive and Socioemotional Processes

4 Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Stability, Instability & Plasticity –Some things change, some remain the same –Temperament is somewhat stable throughout the lifespan (ex. MBTI scores) »Perhaps genetically based –Yet conditions (ex. Parenting style) may result in change Normative and non-normative influences –Normative - Occur in a similar manner for most in a group Age-graded ex. Schooling, puberty, marriage History-graded ex. Growing under Marcos dictatorship –Non-normative –uncommon occurrences ex. illness Themes in Human Development

5 Temperament Temperament - the behavioral characteristics that are fairly well established at birth. Easy - regular, adaptable, and happy Difficult - irregular, nonadaptable, and irritable Slow to warm up - need to adjust gradually to change. How infants and children develop personalities / form relationships Menu

6 Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Multidimensional and integrated –Changes in one aspect affect the other Themes in Human Development

7 Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 4-7 Exploring Human Development Do Early Experiences Rule Us for Life? –the early-experience doctrine after early development, we become fixed –the later experience doctrine What about those who overcome early hardship?

8 Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 4-8 Weight Gain in Massaged and Non Massaged Infants

9 Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 4-9 Exploring Human Development the early-experience doctrine –Study found that adolescent girls were more likely to be depressed when parents had been overly controlling, had demanded high achievement, and had not adequately nurtured the girls when they were aged 3 to 5.

10 Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Exploring Human Development the later-experience doctrine –But other studies show link between stressful adolescent experiences are related to depression in teenage girls.

11 Nature versus Nurture Nature - the influence of our inherited characteristics on our personality, physical growth, intellectual growth, and social interactions. Nurture - the influence of the environment on personality, physical growth, intellectual growth, and social interactions. Behavioral genetics – focuses on nature vs. nurture. Relationship between heredity and environmental factors Menu

12 Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Exploring Human Development How Do Nature and Nurture Influence Development? –Genotype Genetic heritage –Phenotype How genotype is expressed –Eye color, height, intelligence, personality etc.

13 Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Exploring Human Development How Do Nature and Nurture Influence Development? –Exploring Nature and Nurture Nature – biological Nurture – environmental –Learning –Experiences Interaction

14 Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Exploring Human Development How Do Nature and Nurture Influence Development? –Optimal experiences Developing life themes –Life is not restricted to biological survival or passive acceptance of environmental dictates We go beyond what our genetic inheritance and environment give us

15 Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Child Development Prenatal Development and Birth –The Course of Prenatal Development Three Prenatal Periods –Germinal (weeks 1 and 2) –Embryonic ( weeks 3 to 8) –Fetal (months 2 through 9)

16 Periods of Pregnancy Germinal period - first two weeks after fertilization, during which the zygote moves down to the uterus and begins to implant in the lining. Embryo -- name for the developing organism from two weeks to eight weeks after fertilization. Embryonic period - the period from two to eight weeks after fertilization, during which the major organs and structures of the organism develop. Critical periods - times during which certain environmental influences can have an impact on the development of the infant. Teratogen - any factor that can cause a birth defect. LO 7.6 Germinal, embryonic, and fetal periods of pregnancy Menu

17 LO 7.6 Germinal, embryonic, and fetal periods of pregnancy

18 Periods of Pregnancy Fetal period - the time from about eight weeks after conception until the birth of the child. Fetus - name for the developing organism from eight weeks after fertilization to the birth of the baby. LO 7.6 Germinal, embryonic, and fetal periods of pregnancy Menu

19 Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Child Development Physical Development –Reflexes Grasping Sucking Stepping Startle Rooting

20 Menu Physical changes in infancy and childhood

21 Menu LO 7.7 Physical changes in infancy and childhood

22 Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Synaptic Density: Infancy to Adulthood

23 Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. –5 senses Hearing –Mother’s voice –Prefer human voice over other sounds Taste –Similar to adults Smell –Well-developed –Can recognize mother’s scent Touch –Responsive to touch –Soothing Vision –Least developed of senses –Enjoy looking at black, white, red –Enjoy looking at the human face –See best at 6 to 12 inches Capacities of the Newborn

24 Cognitive Development Cognitive development - the development of thinking, problem solving, and memory scheme (plural schemas) a mental concept formed through experiences with objects and events. Menu

25 Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. –Jean Piaget Swiss biologist, philosopher, psychologist COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT

26 Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Major concepts –Schemas »Basic units of the intellect »Concepts of “how the world works” »Changes, becomes more complex with age & experience –Assimilation »Process of interpreting new info and experiences according to existing schemas »Ex. Suck mother’s breast... But also everything else –Accommodation »Modifying or differentiating existing schemas to fit new stimuli »Ex. Sucking schema doesn’t always work! –Equilibration »Cognitive balance attained when schema in accordance with demands of external world COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT

27 Piaget’s Stage Theory Sensorimotor stage - Piaget’s first stage of cognitive development in which the infant uses its senses and motor abilities to interact with objects in the environment. Object permanence - the knowledge that an object exists even when it is not in sight. Menu

28 Piaget’s Stage Theory Preoperational stage - Piaget’s second stage of cognitive development in which the preschool child learns to use language as a means of exploring the world. Egocentrism - the inability to see the world through anyone else’s eyes. Centration - in Piaget’s theory, the tendency of a young child to focus only on one feature of an object while ignoring other relevant features. Conservation - in Piaget’s theory, the ability to understand that simply changing the appearance of an object does not change the object’s nature. Irreversibility - in Piaget’s theory, the inability of the young child to mentally reverse an action. LO 7.9 Three ways of looking at cognitive development Menu

29 LO 7.9 Three ways of looking at cognitive development

30 Piaget’s Stage Theory Concrete operations stage - third stage of cognitive development in which the school-age child becomes capable of logical thought processes but is not yet capable of abstract thinking. Formal operations - Piaget’s last stage of cognitive development in which the adolescent becomes capable of abstract thinking. LO 7.9 Three ways of looking at cognitive development Menu

31 LO 7.9 Three ways of looking at cognitive development

32 Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Critics –Underestimated cognitive development of infants Evidence that infants possess object permanence as early as 4 months –The universality of the stages of cognitive dev’t Acknowledge –The 1 st major theory of cognitive dev’t –Revolutionized teaching methods –What is age-appropriate to teach Evaluating Piaget

33 Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Child Development Socioemotional Development –Erikson's Theory Erikson's Eight Stages of Development

34 Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. SOCIOEMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT  ERIKSON ◦ Develop individual competencies ◦ Fulfill societal expectations

35 Erikson’s First Four Stages Trust versus mistrust - first stage of personality development in which the infant’s basic sense of trust or mistrust develops as a result of consistent or inconsistent care. Autonomy versus shame and doubt - second stage of personality development in which the toddler strives for physical independence. Erikson’s first four stages of psychosocial development Menu

36 Erikson’s First Four Stages Initiative versus guilt - third stage of personality development in which the preschool-aged child strives for emotional and psychological independence and attemps to satisfy curiosity about the world. Industry versus inferiority - fourth stage of personality development in which the adolescent strives for a sense of competence and self-esteem. Erikson’s first four stages of psychosocial development Menu

37 Erikson’s Fifth Stage Identity versus role confusion - fifth stage of personality development in which the adolescent must find a consistent sense of self. Adolescent’s search for identity Menu

38 Erikson’s Last Three Stages Intimacy - an emotional and psychological closeness that is based on the ability to trust, share, and care, while still maintaining a sense of self. Generativity - providing guidance to one’s children or the next generation, or contributing to the well-being of the next generation through career or volunteer work. Integrity - sense of wholeness that comes from having lived a full life and the ability to let go of regrets; the final completion of the ego. Work, relationships, parenting, aging, and death Menu

39 Erikson’s first four stages of psychosocial development

40 Menu LO 7.17 Work, relationships, parenting, aging, and death

41 Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Evaluating Erikson –Overlooked females path of dev’t may be different –1 st to conceptualize a life span theory of dev’t. Development is life long. –Neglected alternative relationships for intimacy Homosexual relationships Religious vocations SOCIOEMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT

42 Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Child Development Socioemotional Development –Parenting Parenting Styles –Authoritarian –Authoritative –Neglectful –Indulgent Divorce Positive Parenting

43 Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Parenting Styles and Child Outcomes

44 Attachment Attachment - the emotional bond between an infant and the primary caregiver. Secure - willing to explore, upset when mother departs but easily soothed upon her return. Avoidant – unattached; explore without “touching base.” Ambivalent - insecurely attached; upset when mother leaves and then angry with mother upon her return. Disorganized-disoriented – insecurely attached and sometimes abused or neglected; seemed fearful, dazed, and depressed. How infants and children develop personalities / form relationships Menu

45 Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Child Development Socioemotional Development –The Wider Social World –Moral Development Kohlberg's Theory Evaluating Kohlberg's Theory

46 Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. –How do people evaluate whether behavior is good or bad? –Is morality universal? What is good? What is bad? Kohlberg MORAL DEVELOPMENT

47 Development of Morality Preconventional morality - first level of Kohlberg’s stages of moral development in which the child’s behavior is governed by the consequences of the behavior. Conventional morality - second level of Kohlberg’s stages of moral development in which the child’s behavior is governed by conforming to the society’s norms of behavior. Postconventional morality - third level of Kohlberg’s stages of moral development in which the person’s behavior is governed by moral principles that have been decided on by the individual and which may be in disagreement with accepted social norms. LO 7.14 How adolescents develop formal operation and moral thinking Menu

48 Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Kohlberg’s Moral Development

49 Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Stage 1 –Punishment and obedience orientation Stage 2 –Reward orientation Stage 3 –Good boy/Good girl Orientation (avoid disapproval) Stage 4 –Authority orientation/Authority-maintaining morality (Anticipation of dishonor, blame, guilt) Stage 5 –Social Contract orientation/ Morality of contract & Democracy (desire for respect) Stage 6 –Ethical Principle Orientation/Morality of Ind’l Principles of Conscience (sense of universality of moral principles, no matter the cost) Teh & Macapagal, 2007

50 Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. –Focus of the young is on personal need –As they get older, appreciate perspectives of others –Later, consider larger society –Becomes more abstract But must be exposed, encouraged to be aware of the perspectives of others –Criticism of Kohlberg’s theories Is it universal? What about culture, education, gender? MORAL DEVELOPMENT

51 Menu How adolescents develop formal operation and moral thinking

52 Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. In Europe, a woman was near death from a special kind of cancer. There was one drug that the doctors thought might save her. It was a form of radium that a druggist in the same town had recently discovered. the drug was expensive to make, but the druggist was charging ten times what the drug cost him to make. He paid $400 for the radium and charged $4,000 for a small dose of the drug. The sick woman's husband, Heinz, went to everyone he knew to borrow the money and tried every legal means, but he could only get together about $2,000, which is half of what it cost. He told the druggist that his wife was dying, and asked him to sell it cheaper or let him pay later. But the druggist said, "No, I discovered the drug and I'm going to make money from if." So, having tried every legal means, Heinz gets desperate and considers breaking into the man's store to steal the drug for his wife. A moral dilemna

53 Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1. Should Heinz steal the drug? 1a. Why or why not? 2. Is it actually right or wrong for him to steal the drug? 2a. Why is it right or wrong? 3. Does Heinz have a duty or obligation to steal the drug? 3a. Why or why not? 4. If Heinz doesn't love his wife, should he steal the drug for her? Does it make a difference in what Heinz should do whether or not he loves his wife? 4a. Why or why not? 5. Suppose the person dying is not his wife but a stranger. Should Heinz steal the drug for the stranger? 5a. Why or why not? 6. Suppose it's a pet animal he loves. should Heinz steal to save the pet animal? 6a. Why or why not? 7. Is it important for people to do everything they can to save another's life? 7a. Why or why not? 8. It is against the law for Heinz to steal. Does that make it morally wrong? 8a. Why or why not? 9. In general, should people try to do everything they can to obey the law? 9a. Why or why not? 9b. How does this apply to what Heinz should do? 10. In thinking back over the dilemma, what would you say is the most responsible thing for Heinz to do? 10a. Why? A moral dilemna

54 Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Child Development Socioemotional Development –Gender Development Gender – the social and psychological aspects of being male or femal According to Gilligan –At age 11 to 12, girls become aware their interest in intimacy isn’t shared by male- dominated culture, though society values females as altruistic and caring. –Dilemna – Be independent? Be selfless? –Reaction – “silence” their distinctive voices

55 Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Child Development –Gender Development Biology and Gender Development –Androgens – male sex hormones –Estrogens – female sex hormones Social Experience and Gender Development –We “adopt” gender roles –Expectations of how males and females shold think, act, and feel Cognition and Gender –How similar/different do males/females think? –Develop gender schema

56 Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Child Development Positive Psychology and Children's Development –Resilient Children Have one or more advantages (Fig 4.21): –Individual –Family –Extrafamilial

57 Puberty and Adolescence Adolescence - the period of life from about age 13 to the early twenties, during which a young person is no longer physically a child but is not yet an independent, self-supporting adult. Puberty - the physical changes that occur in the body as sexual development reaches its peak. Period of about four years. Menu

58 Changes in puberty

59 Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Adolescence Positive Psychology and Adolescence –“abnormal” or “deviant” : but actually 3 out of 4 have healthy self-image Physical Development –Puberty Cognitive Development –Piaget's Formal Operational Stage –Adolescent Egocentrism Believes others are preoccupied with the adolescent/that one is unique/that one is invincible

60 Egocentric Thinking Personal fable - type of thought common to adolescents in which young people believe themselves to be unique and protected from harm. Imaginary audience - type of thought common to adolescents in which young people believe that other people are just as concerned about the adolescent’s thoughts and characteristics as they themselves are. How adolescents develop formal operation and moral thinking Menu

61 Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Adolescence Socioemotional Development –Erikson's Theory and Identity Development –Identity Status According to Marcia (p.154) –Identity diffusion –Identity foreclosure –Identity moratorium –Identity achievment

62 Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Adolescence Socioemotional Development –At-Risk Youth Delinquency Substance abuse Unprotected sex and adolescent pregnancy School-related problems 25% of adolescents have three or more of these problems

63 Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1.Do you remember your first reaction to a biological change? (Females: buying a bra, starting menstruation, growth of pubic hair, etc.; Males: voice fluctuations, facial hair, “wet” dreams, erections, etc.) 2.Was the experience mostly positive or mostly negative? (happy, proud, scared, ashamed, embarrassed) 3.Did you know in advance that these changes were coming? Or did you find out on your own? 4.Who told you what to expect? (parents, siblings, friends, teachers, books) 5.From whom would you have preferred to get the information? 6.In what ways were you prepared? (physical, emotional, social advice) 7.How did your parent(s) react to your physical changes? 8.If you had children, would you do things any differently? Puberty

64 Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Adult Development and Aging Physical Development –Early Adulthood Physical peak in your 20’s Heavy drinking

65 Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Adult Development and Aging Physical Development –Middle Adulthood Skin wrinkles Concern for health Menopause for women –Last period at age 52, on average

66 Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Adult Development and Aging Physical Development –Late Adulthood and Aging Biological Theories of Aging –Cellular-clock theory »Cells can divide a maximum of 100 times »Upper limit of life span is 120 years –Free radical theory »Unstable oxygen molecules ricochet around cells  damaging DNA and cell structures causing cancer etc.

67 Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Adult Development and Aging Cognitive Development –Early Adulthood –Middle Adulthood Crystallized intelligence increases Fluid intelligence decreases –Late Adulthood and Aging –Wisdom Expert knowledge about practical aspects of life

68 Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Human Life Expectancy

69 Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Adult Development and Aging Socioemotional Development –Lifestyles, Commitment, and Marriage Unrealistic expectations  divorce Cohabitation –Research shows living together does not lead to sucsessful marriage – tend to be less happy, and likelier to end in divorce Successful Marriage (Gottman) –Nurture fondness and admiration –Turn towards each other as friends –Giving up some power –Solving conflicts together

70 Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Adult Development and Aging Socioemotional Development –Mid-Life Crisis – 4 Major Conflicts Being young vs. Being old Being destructive vs. Being constructive Being masculine vs. Being feminine Being attached to others vs. Being separated from them –Meaning in Life and Life Themes Death

71 Stages of Death and Dying 1.Denial 2.Anger 3.Bargaining 4.Depression 5.Acceptance Stages of death and dying Menu


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