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Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) And how they are important in the 21 st century By: SB.

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Presentation on theme: "Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) And how they are important in the 21 st century By: SB."— Presentation transcript:

1 Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) And how they are important in the 21 st century By: SB

2 What Are GMOs? GMOs are organisms who have had their genetic makeup altered to give them new characteristics or traits. GMOs are organisms who have had their genetic makeup altered to give them new characteristics or traits. Can be used to greatly improve all types of organisms Can be used to greatly improve all types of organisms 1. Bacterial Cells 2. Plants 3. Animals 4. Humans

3 How They’re Created Desired gene is isolated and cut with restriction enzymes Desired gene is isolated and cut with restriction enzymes Replicated many times through PCR or bacterial plasmids. Replicated many times through PCR or bacterial plasmids. 2 ways of getting the gene into the cell… 2 ways of getting the gene into the cell… - A vector (bacterial plasmids or viruses) - Shotgun method (bio-ballistics) Done in the embryonic stem cells. Done in the embryonic stem cells. 2 types of genetic engineering 2 types of genetic engineering - Positive eugenics - Negative eugenics

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5 GM Bacterial Cells Antibiotic resistant bacteria made to help find new drugs Antibiotic resistant bacteria made to help find new drugs Human genes added to bacteria to produce human hormones that can treat certain diseases or disorders. Human genes added to bacteria to produce human hormones that can treat certain diseases or disorders. Certain bacteria can be used to benefit our environment. Certain bacteria can be used to benefit our environment.

6 Genetically Modified Plants Enhances the taste and quality of fruits, vegetables, grains, etc. Enhances the taste and quality of fruits, vegetables, grains, etc. Takes less time to ripen and stays ripe longer Takes less time to ripen and stays ripe longer Greater resistance to disease, insects and herbicides Greater resistance to disease, insects and herbicides Increases the yield of the crop Increases the yield of the crop

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10 Genetically Modified Animals Agriculture Better yield of meat, eggs and milk Better yield of meat, eggs and milk Increased resistance, hardiness and productivity Increased resistance, hardiness and productivityPharming Certain animals produce substances that are useful in treating human patients Certain animals produce substances that are useful in treating human patients Medical Research Helps to determine what certain genes do Helps to determine what certain genes do Experiments done on animals with human diseases allow for discoveries of new drugs Experiments done on animals with human diseases allow for discoveries of new drugs

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12 Genetically Modified Humans Eradicates all genetic diseases. Eradicates all genetic diseases. All physical traits of a person can be modified to be what the parents wish. All physical traits of a person can be modified to be what the parents wish. It’s believed that psychological and social characteristics can be altered as well. It’s believed that psychological and social characteristics can be altered as well. Improve health and lifespan. Improve health and lifespan.

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14 Pertinence in the 21 st Century The use of genetically modified crops and animals to help solve world hunger problems The use of genetically modified crops and animals to help solve world hunger problems Using genetically modified bacteria or animals in the field of medical research to find or develop new drugs Using genetically modified bacteria or animals in the field of medical research to find or develop new drugs Genetic engineering of humans to eradicate genetic diseases Genetic engineering of humans to eradicate genetic diseases Germline manipulation of humans to produce “designer babies” Germline manipulation of humans to produce “designer babies”

15 Acknoledgements ______. (2007). GM Animals. Retrieved Dec. 14, 2007 from. Frankel, Mark S. (May 2001). Facing Inheritable Genetic Modifications. EBSCO Host Research Database, volume 292 (issue 5520). Retrieved Dec. 12, 2007 from. Hayes, Richard. (Jan. 2000). In the Pipeline: Genetically Modified Humans. The Multinational Monitor, Volume 21 (number 1 & 2). Retrieved Dec. 2, 2007 from. McCuen, Gary E. (1985). Manipulating Life: Debating the Genetic Revolution. Hudson, Wisconsin: Gary McCuen Publications inc. Steinbracher, Ricarda. (July 1998). What is Genetic Engineering. Retrieved Nov. 25, 2007 from. Watson, James D. (2004). DNA: The Secret of Life. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. Zaitlin, Milton. (2007). Biotechnology. Access Science. Retrieved Dec. 12, 2007 from.


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