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Slide 1 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT 6 A Topical Approach to John W. Santrock Cognitive Developmental.

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Presentation on theme: "Slide 1 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT 6 A Topical Approach to John W. Santrock Cognitive Developmental."— Presentation transcript:

1 Slide 1 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT 6 A Topical Approach to John W. Santrock Cognitive Developmental Approaches

2 Slide 2 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Cognitive Developmental Approaches Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Applying and Evaluating Piaget’s Theory Vygotsky’s Theory of Cognitive Development Cognitive Changes in Adulthood

3 Slide 3 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Processes of Development –Organization –Equilibrium –Equilibration Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development –Schemes –Assimilation –Accommodation Piaget observed own 3 children; believed six processes used in constructing knowledge

4 Slide 4 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Schemes Actions or mental representations that organize knowledge –Behavioral schemes: physical activities characterizing infancy –Mental schemes: cognitive activities develop in childhood Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

5 Slide 5 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Assimilation and Accommodation Both operate even in very young infants Assimilation — incorporate new information into existing knowledge schemes Accommodation — adjust schemes to fit new information and experiences Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

6 Slide 6 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Organization Children cognitively organize experiences - Grouping isolated behaviors into a higher-order, more smoothly functioning cognitive system - Grouping items into categories Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

7 Slide 7 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Equilibrium and Equilibration Mechanisms proposed to explain how children shift from one stage of thought to the next –Disequilibrium — shift occurs as children experience cognitive conflict –Equilibration — they resolve conflict through assimilation and accommodation, to reach a new balance or equilibrium of thought Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

8 Slide 8 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Stages of Development Piaget’s theory unifies experiences and biology to explain cognitive development –Motivation is internal search for equilibrium –Four stages of development…progressively advanced and qualitatively different Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

9 Slide 9 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Sensorimotor stage First of Piaget’s stages –Birth to about 2 years –Infants construct understanding of world by coordinating sensory experiences with motoric actions –Contains six substages Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

10 Slide 10 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Sensorimotor Substages Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Simple reflexes Basic means of coordinating sensation and action through reflexive behaviors First habits and primary circular reactions Infants’ infant’s attempt to reproduce interesting or pleasurable event (1-4 mos) Secondary circular reactions Infant is more object- oriented moving beyond preoccupation with the self (4-8 months)

11 Slide 11 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Sensorimotor Substages Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Coordination of secondary circular reactions Significant changes in coordination of schemes and intentionality (8-12 mos) Tertiary circular reactions, novelty and curiosity Intrigued by objects’ many properties; explores new possibilities with them (12-18 mos) Internalization of Schemes Ability to use primitive symbols; shift to mental manipulation (18-24 mos)

12 Slide 12 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Object Permanence Understanding that objects and events continue to exist even when they cannot directly be seen, heard, or touched –One of infant’s most important accomplishments –Acquired in stages –Violation of expectations testing Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

13 Slide 13 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Infant’s Understanding of Causality Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development (b) (c) (a) Fig. 6.5

14 Slide 14 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Evaluating Piaget’s Sensorimotor Stage New research techniques suggest Piaget’s theory needs to be modified –Some abilities develop earlier Intermodal perception; substantiality and permanence of objects –Transitions not as clear-cut; AB error –Objects seen as separate at much younger age; possibly at birth or shortly after Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

15 Slide 15 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Preoperational Stage Second Piagetian developmental stage –About 2 to 7 years of age; two substages –Children begin to represent the world with words, images, and drawings Not ready to perform Operations –Internalized actions that allow children to do mentally what before they only did physically –Reversible mental actions Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

16 Slide 16 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. The Symbolic Function Substage Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Symbolic function Egocentrism Animism First substage of preoperational thought; young child gains ability to represent mentally an object that is not present (2-4 years) Inability to distinguish between one’s own and another’s view Belief that inanimate objects have lifelike qualities, capable of action

17 Slide 17 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. The Three Mountains Task Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development View 1 Child seated here (a) (b) (d) (c) View 2 Child seated here (a) (b) (d) (c) Fig. 6.6

18 Slide 18 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Fig. 6.7 The Symbolic Drawings of Young Children (a) A 3 1/2 -year-old’s symbolic drawing. Halfway into this drawing, the 3 1/2 -year-old artist said it was “a pelican kissing a seal.” (b) This 11-year-old’s drawing is neater and more realistic but also less inventive.

19 Slide 19 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. The Intuitive Thought Substage Children begin using primitive reasoning and want to know answers to all sorts of questions (4-7 years) –Why? questions exhaust adults –Centration — focusing attention on one characteristic to exclusion of others –Conservation — object’s amount stays same regardless of changing appearance; lacking in preoperational stage Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

20 Slide 20 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Piaget’s Conservation Task Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Fig. 6.8

21 Slide 21 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Some Dimensions of Conservation: Number, Matter, and Length Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Fig. 6.9

22 Slide 22 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Piaget’s Concrete Operational Stage Piaget’s third stage (7-11 years) Children can perform concrete operations Logical reasoning replaces intuitive reasoning if applied to specific, concrete examples Horizontal Décalage –Similar abilities do not appear at same time within stage of development such as conservation abilities Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

23 Slide 23 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Classification Skills Concrete operations child understands one person can be father, brother, and grandson Seriation — involves stimuli along quantitative dimension (e.g. length) Transitivity — if relation holds between first and second object, and holds between the second and third object, then it holds between first and third object Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

24 Slide 24 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Classification: An Important Ability in Concrete Operational Thought Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Fig. 6.10

25 Slide 25 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Formal Operational Stage Individuals move beyond concrete operations and think in more abstract and logical ways (11-15 years) Abstract, Idealistic, and Logical Thinking –Verbal problem-solving ability increases –Increased ability to think about thought itself –Thought is full of idealism and possibilities Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

26 Slide 26 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Formal Operational Stage Children solve problems by trial-and-error Adolescents think more like scientists Assimilation dominates initial development Hypothetical-deductive reasoning –Have cognitive ability to develop hypotheses, or best guesses, and systematically deduce the best path to follow in solving a problem Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

27 Slide 27 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Adolescent Egocentrism Heightened adolescents’ self-consciousness Imaginary audience –Belief that others are as interested in them as they are –Involves attention-getting behavior motivated by desire to be noticed, visible, and “on stage” Personal fable — adolescent’s sense of uniqueness and invincibility Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

28 Slide 28 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Piaget and Education Take a constructivist approach Facilitate rather than direct learning Consider child’s knowledge, level of thinking Use ongoing assessment Promote the student’s intellectual health Turn classroom into setting of exploration and discovery Applying and Evaluating Piaget’s Theory

29 Slide 29 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Evaluating Piaget’s Theory Contributions –New way of looking at children as active thinkers Criticisms –Some estimates of children’s competence is inaccurate –Development not uniformly stage-like –Effects of training –Culture and education influence development Applying and Evaluating Piaget’s Theory

30 Slide 30 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Neo-Piagetians Argue Piaget got some things right, but theory needs revision More emphasis to memory, attention, information-processing strategies, and processing speed Applying and Evaluating Piaget’s Theory

31 Slide 31 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Vygotsky’s Theory of Cognitive Development Social contexts; minds are shaped by cultural context in which they live Tools are provided by society Children actively construct their knowledge and understanding through social interactions Vygotsky’s Theory of Cognitive Development

32 Slide 32 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. The Zone of Proximal Development Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) –Tasks too difficult for children to master alone but that can be mastered with guidance and assistance from more-skilled person Scaffolding –Changing level of support over course of a teaching session to fit child’s current performance level Vygotsky’s Theory of Cognitive Development

33 Slide 33 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development Vygotsky’s Theory of Cognitive Development Fig. 6.11

34 Slide 34 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Vygotsky: Language and Thought Believed young children use language to plan, guide, and monitor behavior Language and thought initially develop independently, then merge Private speech: language of self-regulation –Self talk (3 to 7 years of age) –Inner talk: child’s thoughts Vygotsky’s Theory of Cognitive Development

35 Slide 35 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Teaching Strategies based on Vygotsky’s Theory Successfully applied to education –Use child’s ZPD –Use more-skilled peers as teachers –Monitor and encourage private speech –Effectively assess child’s ZPD –Instruction in meaningful context –Transform classroom Vygotsky’s Theory of Cognitive Development

36 Slide 36 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Guided Participation Widely used around the world Culture may differ in goals of development Child’s responsibilities revised as skill and knowledge are gained –Chewa of Zambia –Maya of Guatemala Vygotsky’s Theory of Cognitive Development

37 Slide 37 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Evaluating Vygotsky’s Theory Social constructivist approach — emphasize social contexts of learning and construction of knowledge through social interaction –Shift from individual to collaborative learning –Teachers facilitate and guide, not direct and mold –May overemphasize language’s role in thinking –Facilitators may help too much; make child lazy Vygotsky’s Theory of Cognitive Development

38 Slide 38 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Piaget’s View of Adult Cognition Thinking qualitatively in formal operations same as adolescents Adults have more knowledge Research shows: –Many don’t reach highest level until adulthood –Many adults don’t use formal operational thinking Cognitive Changes in Adulthood

39 Slide 39 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Cognitive Changes in Adulthood Thinking of young adults is beyond formal operational stage of adolescents. It is… –Realistic — Idealism decreases in face of real world constraints –Pragmatic — Switch from acquiring knowledge to applying it –Reflective and Relativistic — Move away from absolutist thinking of adolescence

40 Slide 40 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Is There A Fifth, Postformal Stage? Postformal thought is –Reflective, relativistic, and contextual –Provisional –Realistic –Open to emotions and subjective More research needed Another possible stage may be wisdom Cognitive Changes in Adulthood

41 Slide 41 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. The End 6


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