Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2 Models of Development: Nature and Nurture in Adulthood “How old would you be if you didn’t know how old you was?” Satchel Paige 1906-1982."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 2 Models of Development: Nature and Nurture in Adulthood “How old would you be if you didn’t know how old you was?” Satchel Paige 1906-1982
Key concepts in the study of the lifespan Life Span Perspective (LSP) views life from conception (& childhood) through old age and death – Contextual influences include sex, race, ethnicity, social class, religion, and culture Gerontology is an interdisciplinary approach to understanding aging
Key concepts in the study of the lifespan Life span change is a function of nature and nurture –Organismic model emphasizes heredity (nature) –Mechanistic model emphasizes outside forces (nurture)
Developmental science looks at multiple factors in development Niche-pickingNiche-picking: genetic and environmental factors work together to influence the direction of a child’s life Interactionist model:Interactionist model: 3 contributors to development –1. genetics –2. environment –3. individuals actively shape their own development
Key concepts in the study of the lifespan Plasticity: one’s capabilities & potential are not fixed Reciprocity principle Reciprocity principle: people influence and are influenced by the events in their lives
From genome to protein Genome: complete set of instructions for “building” all the cells that make up an organism Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA): a molecule capable of replicating itself that encodes information needed to produce proteins Biological models of development
From genome to protein Mutations may lead the genes to produce abnormal proteins Gene: a functional unit of a DNA molecule carrying as particular set of instructions for producing a specific protein Chromosome: a distinct, physically separate unit of coiled threads of DNA and associated protein molecules
Genome-Wide Linkage Study Researchers study genomes of families with specific traits or disorders Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) Researchers scan the entire genome of a large number of people Two types of genetic studies
Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) A SNP is a genetic variation that can occur in a person’s DNA sequence. A single base is replaced by any of the other three bases. Many researchers believe that some SNPs may predispose people to resistance to disease or a longer lifespan.
Programmed Aging Theories These theories propose that aging and death are built into the hard-wiring (and genetic code) of all species. Replicative senescence: the loss of the ability of cells to reproduce
telomere theory, According to the telomere theory, each cell replication reduces the length of telomeres until the chromosome’s tips are no longer protected. FOXO3A Is FOXO3A the newest longevity gene? Certain SNPs in the FOXO3A gene are associated with longevity
The Gompertz Function plots the relationship between age and death rates for a given species It demonstrates that the mortality rate increases in a geometric progression with age. Source: Sacher, G. A. (1977). Life table modification and life prolongation. In C. E. Finch & L. Hayflick (Eds.), Handbook of the biology of aging (pp.582–638). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. White-footed mouse Cotton rat
Random Error Theories of Aging: These theories are based on the assumption that aging reflects unplanned changes in an organism over time Wear and tear theory of aging: a body, like a car, acquires more and more damage as it is exposed to daily use
Cross-linking theory proposes that aging causes deleterious changes in cells of the body that make up much of the body’s connective tissue, including the skin, tendons, muscles, and cartilage. Collagen: the fibrous protein that makes up about one- fourth of all bodily proteins. cross-linking, In cross-linking, the strands of the collagen molecule (left) start to become intertwined, causing the molecules to become increasingly more rigid and smaller.
Free Radical Theory Free radicals: Unstable oxygen molecules produced when cells create energy They seek out and bind to other molecules The attacked molecule then loses its functioning Antioxidants can fend them off Free radical theory states that the cause of aging is the increased activity of unstable oxygen molecules that bond to other molecules and compromise the cell’s functioning.
Autoimmune Theory of Aging This theory proposes that aging is due to faulty immune system functioning in which the immune system attacks the body’s own cells. This theory proposes that mutations in mitochondrial DNA acquired over the organism’s lifetime lead to malfunctioning of the body’s cells. Error Catastrophe Theory of Aging
Bronfenbrenner’s ecological perspective Urie Bronfenbrenner (1917-2005) Development is affected by processes at multiple levels Sociocultural models of development
Bronfenbrenner’s ecological perspective Microsystem: the setting in which people have their daily interactions and which therefore have the most direct impact on their lives Exosystem: includes the environments that people do not closely experience on a regular basis but that impact them nevertheless Macrosystem: includes larger social institutions ranging from a country’s economy to its laws and social norms Mesosystem: realm of the environment in which interactions take place among two or more microsystems Chronosystem: changes that take place over time Sociocultural models of development
Whitehall II Whitehall II investigated influence of social class on health Here, men and women in lower employment grade occupations had lower physical functioning scores. Whitehall II Whitehall II investigated influence of social class on health Here, men and women in lower employment grade occupations had lower physical functioning scores. Source: Marmot, M., & Brunner, E. (2005). Cohort profile: the Whitehall II study. International Journal of Epidemiology, 34, 251–260 by permission of Oxford University Press.
Norms Roles Attitudes Life course perspective: Life course perspective: norms, roles, and attitudes about age help to shape the person’s life ChildTeenYoung adult Midlife adult Older adult Social clock: Social clock: the expectations for the ages at which a society associates major life events
Contrasting life course theories Activity theory Older adults are better adjusted when they remain involved in their social roles Disengagement theory The normal course of life is for older adults to loosen their social ties Continuity theory The individual’s personality determines whether activity or disengagement is optimal
Where does ageism come from? Terror management theory: seeing older adults remind us of our mortality Modernization hypothesis: industrialization led older adults to become obsolete Multiple jeopardy hypothesis: ageism is another “ism” Why aren’t more older adults negatively affected by ageism? Age-as-leveler: Older adults become regarded as targets regardless of prior status Inoculation hypothesis: older adults, especially women and minorities, become immune to ageism Why aren’t more older adults negatively affected by ageism? Age-as-leveler: Older adults become regarded as targets regardless of prior status Inoculation hypothesis: older adults, especially women and minorities, become immune to ageism
Piaget’s Cognitive-Developmental Theory: Schemas, Assimilation & Accommodation in less than 2 minutes--Link to Video Jean Piaget (1896-1980)
Schemas: Mental structures we use to understand the world “Toy cars” Piaget’s Cognitive-Developmental Theory “Toy car!”
Accommodation: Occurs when one changes a schema in response to new information about the world E.g., Expand categories of 4-wheeled toys—cars AND trucks. “Toy trucks”
4 stages of cognitive development Each stage represents a time of equilibrium, when assimilation and accommodation are perfectly balanced.
Identity process theory Susan Krauss Whitbourne Identity continues to change in adulthood in a dynamic manner Identity: a set of schemas one holds about oneself Identity assimilation: tendency to interpret new experiences in terms of person’s existing identity Identity accommodation: a change in identity in response to experiences that challenge one’s current view of him/herself Identity balance: equilibrium that occurs when people tend to view themselves consistently but can make changes when called for by their experiences Self efficacy: a person’s feeling of competence at a particular task
Individuals realize they are getting older through a stepwise process as aging-related changes or illness occur Identity accommodation tends to have more negative effects on the individual than does identity assimilation or balance. Multiple threshold model
Selective optimization with compensation model (SOC) Adults attempt to preserve and maximize the abilities that are of central importance and put less effort into maintaining those that are not. E.g., When aerobic exercise becomes too strenuous, people might substitute tai chi.
Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory of Development Erik Erikson (1902-1994) At certain points in life, a person’s biological, psychological, and social changes come together to influence personality
Your Life Events For each of the age ranges listed, write down a memory from that time period. If you do not remember or have not yet reached a particular age range, write down one event that you believe would be important for the age range in question. 0-1 2-3 4-5 6-12 13-20 21-39 40-64 65+
WEEKLY WORK: Group Project “Events During 8 Stages of Life” Form groups of four. Discuss the ideas of each group member, stage by stage. Based on the ideas provided by all of the group members, pick one example that the group decides best illustrates each stage of psychosocial development. –For each of one of your 8 chosen examples, note the following: psychosocial crisis (e.g., Basic Trust versus Mistrust) significant relationship(s) involved basic strength acquired outcome (or anticipated outcome) Your group will then make a brief presentation to the class, providing the examples you chose for each of the 8 stages of psychosocial development and explaining how your examples fit Erikson’s psychosocial model.