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1. Final Accounts Pages 267 - 271 2 Topic 3.4 (HL)

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Presentation on theme: "1. Final Accounts Pages 267 - 271 2 Topic 3.4 (HL)"— Presentation transcript:

1 1

2 Final Accounts Pages Topic 3.4 (HL)

3 3 Nothing speaks more eloquently than money French Proverb

4 4 Assessment Objectives: AO1 Demonstrate knowledge and understanding AO2 Demonstrate application and analysis AO3 Demonstrate synthesis and evaluation AO4 Demonstrate a variety of appropriate skills

5 5 Content Objectives: AO2:To apply and analyse Depreciation using the following methods: Depreciation using the following methods: o Straight line method o Reducing balance method  The strengths and weaknesses of each method

6 6 Language Objectives: LO1 Reading informative texts: determine two or more central ideas of a given case study LO2 Writing: write arguments to support claims using evidence from a case study LO3 Listening: build on others’ ideas and participate in discussions. LO4 Speaking: make strategic use of digital media textual and other interactive elements in presentations.

7 Depreciation (AO2)  When businesses buy fixed assets the value of the asset will change  The increase in the value of fixed assets over time is known as appreciation  However, most fixed assets tend to decrease in their value over time and is known as depreciation  Depreciation spreads the historic cost (purchase cost) of a fixed asset over its useful lifespan

8 Depreciation (AO2)  There are two main reasons for depreciation:  Wear and tear: fixed assets like computers, motor vehicles, etc. will fall in value as they are used over and over. As a result, such assets become less valuable to a buyer and so the value is depreciated  Obsolete assets: with newer and better products become available, these will reduce the demand for existing fixed assets. Obsolete assets e.g. old version of computers and software will fetch little value if sold. Hence their value needs to be depreciated

9 Depreciation (AO2)  The changes in the value of fixed assets are shown by reassessing the value of the assets on a balance sheet.  Depreciation needs to be recorded in order to: o calculate the value of a business more accurately ie revaluing assets that have appreciated is likely to increase the net o realistically assess the value of fixed assets over time as historical or purchase cost of fixed assets is unlikely to be equal to its current market value o plan for the replacement of assets in the future. Provisions are made in order to replace the cost of purchasing new fixed assets.

10 Depreciation (AO2)  There are two main methods of calculating depreciation: o Straight Line o Declining or Reducing Balance

11 Depreciation (AO2) Straight Line Method:  Annual depreciation = Purchase cost / lifespan Example:  An electronic security system is bought for $25,000 and is expected to last five years.  Annual depreciation = / 5 = 5000

12 12 Straight-line method: Straight line depreciation at $5,000 p.a. Year end Depreciation Book value ($) , ,000 20, ,000 15, ,000 10, ,

13 13 Straight-line method: Straight line depreciation at $5,000 p.a. Values $ Year end 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,

14 Depreciation (AO2) Straight Line Method:  Residual value: an estimate of the scrap or disposed value of the asset at the end of its useful life.  Annual depreciation = (Historical or Purchase cost minus Residual value) / Lifespan Example:  An electronic security system is bought for $25,000 and is expected to last five years. It is also expected to fetch a second-hand value of $5,000 in 5 years time.

15 15 Straight-line method: Straight line depreciation at $4,000 p.a. Year end Depreciation Book value ($) , ,000 21, ,000 17, ,000 13, ,000 9, ,000 5,000

16 16 Straight-line method: Straight line depreciation at $4,000 p.a. Values $ Year end 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,

17 Depreciation (AO2) Straight Line Method:  Straight-line method is straightforward and simple to understand.  Limitations: fixed assets are depreciated by an equal amount each year which is unrealistic as most assets lose a much larger percentage of their value at the beginning of their useful life eg motor vehicles, etc.

18 Depreciation (AO2) Reducing Balance Method:  Depreciating assets at a constant rate each year  Net book value = Historical cost minus (less) Cumulative depreciation  Using the same example: An electronic security system is bought for $25,000 and is expected to last five years.  Thus, using the reducing balance method of depreciation to depreciate the security system, say at an annual rate of 25%, the book value at the end of each year will be:

19 19 Reducing balance depreciation at an annual rate of 25%: Year end Depreciation Book value ($) , ,250 18, ,687 14, ,516 10, ,637 7, ,977 5,933

20 20 Reducing balance depreciation at an annual rate of 25%: Values $ Year end 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,

21 Depreciation (AO2) Reducing Balance Method:  This method is not easy to calculate and deciding on the rate of annual depreciation is not always a simple task.  However, fixed assets are depreciated by a larger amount in the earlier years of its useful life which is more representative of fixed assets i.e. this method is more realistic in representing the declining market value of fixed assets.

22 Depreciation (AO2) Reducing Balance Method:  This method is not easy to calculate and deciding on the rate of annual depreciation is not always a simple task.  However, fixed assets are depreciated by a larger amount in the earlier years of its useful life which is more representative of fixed assets i.e. this method is more realistic in representing the declining market value of fixed assets.

23 23 Question 1: The manager of Collison Ltd has purchased a new piece of equipment to help speed up the production line. The equipment cost $50,000 and is expected to last for five years. At the end of this period the equipment can be traded in for the value of $4000. Calculate the depreciation for each year on the asset using both methods. Show the net book value for the equipment at the end of each of the 5 years for each method (assume that 40% is to be used for the reducing balance method).

24 24 Q1 Suggested Answer: YearSL DepnSL NBVRB DepnRB NBV

25 25 Question 2 Fiona Palmer, a sole trader purchases a delivery van for the sum of $12,000. It has as estimated life of 6 years and a trade-in value of $3,000. Palmer is not sure whether to use the straight line or the reducing balance method when providing for deprecation on the van. You are required to calculate the annual depreciation on the van using both methods. Show the balance remaining - the net book value - on the van at the end of each of the 6 years for each method (assume that 20% is to be used for the reducing balance method).

26 26 Answer 2: Answer 2: YearSL DepnSL NBVRB DepnRB NBV

27 Depreciation (AO2) Reducing Balance Method:  Amortisation is similar to depreciation but is used to reduce the value of intangible assets on a balance sheet.  Examples: copyrights and patents near the expiry date or IPR tends to fall in value over time.

28 Depreciation (AO2) Limitations of final accounts:  Using a single year’s account is of little value  Non-financial matters are not revealed such as HR, ethical objectives and location  Comparison and benchmarking with other firms in the same industry should be done  Companies may window dress their accounts  Show historical performance of a company

29 Exercises: 1.Open this link and answer the QUIZ questions: 2.When Task 1 is done, try out ‘Word Scrambles’ and finally ‘Crossword Puzzle’.


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