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Nuts & Bolts Plan for Today Review of material from last time Lecture (Caspi et al. Ann Rev Psychol 2005) – Defining T&P – Continuity and change Take-home.

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Presentation on theme: "Nuts & Bolts Plan for Today Review of material from last time Lecture (Caspi et al. Ann Rev Psychol 2005) – Defining T&P – Continuity and change Take-home."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nuts & Bolts Plan for Today Review of material from last time Lecture (Caspi et al. Ann Rev Psychol 2005) – Defining T&P – Continuity and change Take-home critical thinking questions

2 Review of Material From Last Time Questions provide examples of the kinds of items that will be featured on exams Questions highlight the key conceptual and methodological points from last time

3 In his 1968 book Personality and Assessment, Walt Mischel argued that the primary determinant of moods, thoughts, and behavior is A.The situation, because T&P at most predict outcomes r =.30 (9% variance) B.T&P C.Both

4 But contemporary science suggests that moods, thoughts, and behavior are determined by A.The situation B.T&P C.Both

5 Trait-like individual differences in T&P are strongly predictive of… A.Academic performance (above & beyond IQ) B.Marital stability & satisfaction C.Mental & physical health and wellbeing (morbidity) D.Death (mortality) E.All of the above

6 Correlation and variance “explained:” If two variables are correlated R =.50, the amount of variance accounted for is: A.0.50 * 0.50 =.25 = 25% B.0.50 / 0.50 = 1 = 100% C.Sqrt(.50) =.7071 = 70%

7 Longitudinal research studies… A.Provide strong evidence that antecedants (childhood) predict consequences (adulthood), a precondition for establishing causation B.Complex, costly, and time- consuming C.Can not prove causation, because they do not manipulate the putative cause of the outcome D.All of the above

8 Moffitt et al PNAS: What is C/SC? A.Do things by the book; follow rules B.Prefer order and neatness C.Planful; not impulsive D.Able to delay gratification; self-disciplined (marshmallow test) E.Focused; not easily distracted F.All of the above

9 Which features of modern culture tend to magnify the impact of individual differences in T&P, such as C/SC? A.Longevity B.Risk exposure (fast food nation) C.The relatively high prevalance of psychiatric disorders, such as depression, anxiety, and substance abuse D.All of the above

10 Moffitt et al PNAS: Key results: Childhood C/SC predicted mid-life A.Composite measure of health B.Composite measure of personal wealth C.Incarceration, criminal conviction and other indices of public safety D.All of the above

11 Moffitt et al PNAS: Key results: Which is true? A.Kids with low C/SC are prone to smoke, become parents, and drop out of school as teens B.Teen snares explain the negative adult outcomes experienced by many kids with low C/SC C.Teen snares are only part of the story. Might make more sense to target the root cause (low childhood C/SC) for intevention, rather than teen symptoms D.All of the above

12 Today’s Conceptual Roadmap Are T&P fundamentally different? How are T&P organized? How many factors? How are emotion and cognition incorporated into these factors? Are some factors more ‘infused’ with cognition than others? Are some traits, such as N/NE, categorically “bad?” Are individual differences in T&P fixed and immutable vs. plastic and malleable? Should we be optimistic about the possibility of positive change and growth?

13 Today’s Conceptual Roadmap Are T&P fundamentally different? How are T&P organized? How many factors? How are emotion and cognition incorporated into these factors? Are some factors more ‘infused’ with cognition than others? Are some traits, such as N/NE, categorically “bad?” Are individual differences in T&P fixed and immutable vs. plastic and malleable? Should we be optimistic about the possibility of positive change and growth?

14 Today’s Conceptual Roadmap Are T&P fundamentally different? How are T&P organized? How many factors? How are emotion and cognition incorporated into these factors? Are some factors more ‘infused’ with cognition than others? Are some traits, such as N/NE, categorically “bad?” Are individual differences in T&P fixed and immutable vs. plastic and malleable? Should we be optimistic about the possibility of positive change and growth?

15 Today’s Conceptual Roadmap Are T&P fundamentally different? How are T&P organized? How many factors? How are emotion and cognition incorporated into these factors? Are some factors more infused or saturated with cognition than others? Are some traits, such as N/NE, categorically “bad?” Are individual differences in T&P fixed and immutable vs. plastic and malleable? Should we be optimistic about the possibility of positive change and growth?

16 Today’s Conceptual Roadmap Are T&P fundamentally different? How are T&P organized? How many factors? How are emotion and cognition incorporated into these factors? Are some factors more infused or saturated with cognition than others? Are some traits, such as N/NE, categorically “bad?” Are individual differences in T&P fixed and immutable vs. plastic and malleable? Should we be optimistic about the possibility of positive change and growth?

17 Today’s Conceptual Roadmap Are T&P fundamentally different? How are T&P organized? How many factors? How are emotion and cognition incorporated into these factors? Are some factors more infused or saturated with cognition than others? Are some traits, such as N/NE, categorically “bad?” Are individual differences in T&P fixed and immutable vs. plastic and malleable? Should we be optimistic about the possibility of positive change and growth?

18 PSYC 612: Fundamental Dimensions of T&P AJ Shackman 15 September 2014

19 Are temperament and personality categorically different?

20 Historical and Intuitive (Folk Psychological) Perspective: Temperament and Personality are Different in Kind Temperament: Enduring differences that reflect the nature of the person “the way you act” “more animal, more reflexive or automatic” “true self” “born with, one’s nature, innate” Early appearing, biological, genetic Personality: Enduring differences that reflect the nurture of the person “tendency to feel or express particular emotions” “mix of attitudes and emotion, cognition, and behavior” “developed or acquired” “regulation or management of (emotional) expression in the service of goals” Later appearing, reflective of experience and the environment, more complex and sophisticated

21 Historical and Intuitive (Folk Psychological) Perspective: Temperament and Personality are Different in Kind Temperament: Enduring differences that reflect the nature of the person “the way you act” “more animal, more reflexive or automatic” “true self” “born with, one’s nature, innate” Early appearing, biological, genetic Personality: Enduring differences that reflect the nurture of the person “tendency to feel or express particular emotions” “mix of attitudes and emotion, cognition, and behavior” “developed or acquired” “regulation or management of (emotional) expression in the service of goals” Later appearing, reflective of experience and the environment, more complex and sophisticated

22 Historical and Intuitive (Folk Psychological) Perspective: Temperament and Personality are Different in Kind Temperament: Enduring differences that reflect the nature of the person “the way you act” “more animal, more reflexive or automatic” “true self” “born with, one’s nature, innate” Early appearing, biological, genetic Personality: Enduring differences that reflect the nurture of the person “tendency to feel or express particular emotions” “mix of attitudes and emotion, cognition, and behavior” “developed or acquired” “regulation or management of (emotional) expression in the service of goals” Later appearing, reflective of experience and the environment, more complex and sophisticated

23 Historical and Intuitive (Folk Psychological) Perspective: Temperament and Personality are Different in Kind Temperament: Enduring differences that reflect the nature of the person “the way you act” “more animal, more reflexive or automatic” “true self” “born with, one’s nature, innate” Early appearing, biological, genetic Personality: Enduring differences that reflect the nurture of the person “tendency to feel or express particular emotions” “mix of attitudes and emotion, cognition, and behavior” “developed or acquired” “regulation or management of (emotional) expression in the service of goals” Later appearing, reflective of experience and the environment, more complex and sophisticated

24 Contemporary Scientific Perspective: Temperament and Personality are Fundamentally Similar

25 By definition, temperament traits appear earlier in life. Given the brain’s level of maturity at birth, temperament trait are necessarily less sophisticated or complex ; cortical circuits involved in planning and regulation do not come on-line til later But, both temperament and personality traits are Instantiated in the activity of the brain Identifiable in non-human animals Show similar levels of genetic influence Can be influenced by experience “Differences in the experience and expression of positive and negative emotions are at the heart of some of the most important temperament and personality traits…Temperament and personality traits increasingly appear to be more alike than different.” – Caspi ‘05

26 Contemporary Scientific Perspective: Temperament and Personality are Fundamentally Similar By definition, temperament traits appear earlier in life. Given the brain’s level of maturity at birth, temperament trait are necessarily less sophisticated or complex ; cortical circuits involved in planning and regulation do not come on-line til later But, both temperament and personality traits are Instantiated in the activity of the brain Identifiable in non-human animals Show similar levels of genetic influence Can be influenced by experience “Differences in the experience and expression of positive and negative emotions are at the heart of some of the most important temperament and personality traits…Temperament and personality traits increasingly appear to be more alike than different.” – Caspi ‘05

27 Contemporary Scientific Perspective: Temperament and Personality are Fundamentally Similar By definition, temperament traits appear earlier in life. Given the brain’s level of maturity at birth, temperament trait are necessarily less sophisticated or complex ; cortical circuits involved in planning and regulation do not come on-line til later But, both temperament and personality traits are Instantiated in the activity of the brain Identifiable in non-human animals Show similar levels of genetic influence Can be influenced by experience “Temperament and personality traits increasingly appear to be more alike than different.” – Caspi ‘05

28 How are T&P structured? How many dimensions?

29 Trait psychologists have always been contentious about how best to slice up personality, and disagreements have abounded over whether one way or another is fundamental.* —CS Carver & MF Scheier TiCS 2014 * A battle that we will discuss in detail later this semester

30 T&P Can Be Conceptualized as a Hierarchy of Traits Zentner et al. 2012; cf. Caspi et al 2005 Broad ‘umbrella’ traits Narrow ‘facet’ traits

31 T&P Can Be Conceptualized as a Hierarchy of Traits Zentner et al. 2012; cf. Caspi et al 2005 Broad ‘umbrella’ traits Narrow ‘facet’ traits

32 3 Broad Super-Factors Zentner et al. 2012; cf. Caspi et al 2005

33 3 Broad Super-Factors Zentner et al. 2012; cf. Caspi et al 2005

34 Neuroticism / Negative Emotionality (N/NE) Caspi et al. ARP 2005 N/NE Emotion: susceptibility to negative moods Appraisal: experience the world as distressing or threatening Motivation: aversive / defensive; tendency to work hard to avoid punishment N/NE is primarily conceptualized in terms of emotional reactivity and motivation, making it the easiest to translate to nonhuman models, such as monkeys, rats, and mice

35 Neuroticism / Negative Emotionality (N/NE) Caspi et al. ARP 2005 N/NE Emotion: susceptibility to negative moods Appraisal: experience the world as distressing or threatening Motivation: aversive / defensive; tendency to work hard to avoid punishment N/NE is primarily conceptualized in terms of emotional reactivity and motivation, making it the easiest to translate to nonhuman models, such as monkeys, rats, and mice

36 Neuroticism / Negative Emotionality (N/NE) Caspi et al. ARP 2005 N/NE Emotion: susceptibility to negative moods Appraisal: experience the world as distressing or threatening Motivation: aversive / defensive; tendency to work hard to avoid punishment N/NE is primarily conceptualized in terms of emotional reactivity and motivation, making it the easiest to translate to nonhuman models, such as monkeys, rats, and mice

37 Extraversion / Positive Emotionality (E/PE) Caspi et al. ARP 2005 Extraverts (High E/PE) outgoing, expressive, energetic, & content to lead (dominant) Introverts (Low E/PE) quiet, inhibited, lethargic, & content to follow not to be confused with Neuroticism/Negative Emotionality (N/NE) High E/PE ‘Extravert’ Low E/PE ‘Introvert’

38 Extraversion / Positive Emotionality (E/PE) Caspi et al. ARP 2005 Extraverts (High E/PE) outgoing, expressive, energetic, & content to lead (dominant) Introverts (Low E/PE) quiet, inhibited, lethargic, & content to follow not to be confused with Neuroticism/Negative Emotionality (N/NE) High E/PE ‘Extravert’ Low E/PE ‘Introvert’

39 Extraversion / Positive Emotionality (E/PE) Caspi et al. ARP 2005 Core features of E/PE are less clear (than N/NE), but seem to include Emotion: susceptibility to positive moods Appraisal: see the world as a series of opportunities for reward Motivation: appetitive motivation; tendency to work hard to approach rewards and incentives, especially social rewards and social attention

40 Extraversion / Positive Emotionality (E/PE) Caspi et al. ARP 2005 Core features of E/PE are less clear (than N/NE), but seem to include Emotion: susceptibility to positive moods Appraisal: see the world as a series of opportunities for reward Motivation: appetitive motivation; tendency to work hard to approach rewards and incentives, especially social rewards and social attention

41 Extraversion / Positive Emotionality (E/PE) Caspi et al. ARP 2005 Core features of E/PE are less clear (than N/NE), but seem to include Emotion: susceptibility to positive moods Appraisal: see the world as a series of opportunities for reward Motivation: appetitive motivation; tendency to work hard to approach rewards and incentives, especially social rewards and social attention The emphasis on social dominance (leadership) and enjoyment of social attention differs from the comparatively pure emphasis on emotion/motivation that we saw with N/NE That is, the superfactors are not mirrors of one another

42 Self-Control/Constraint (SC/C) Caspi et al. ARP 2005 SC/C High SC/C: responsible, attentive, careful, persistent, orderly, and planful Low SC/C: irresponsible, unreliable, careless, and distractible

43 Self-Control/Constraint (SC/C) Caspi et al. ARP 2005 SC/C High SC/C: responsible, attentive, careful, persistent, orderly, and planful Low SC/C: irresponsible, unreliable, careless, and distractible

44 Self-Control/Constraint (SC/C) Caspi et al. ARP 2005 SC/C differs from the other superfactors in key ways Emphasis on cognition (e.g., selective attention) Reduced emphasis on emotional reactivity and motivation Increased emphasis on complex, uniquely human qualities (e.g., responsibilty) Reflects the origins of many self-report measures of personality Personnel selection for military occupations (WW I and II) SC/C is complex combination of complex, late-maturing cognitive capacities and emotion/motivation (e.g., sensitivity to negative feedback) Again, the 3 super-factors are not totally parallel constructs

45 Self-Control/Constraint (SC/C) Caspi et al. ARP 2005 SC/C differs from the other superfactors in key ways Emphasis on cognition (e.g., selective attention) Reduced emphasis on emotional reactivity and motivation Increased emphasis on complex, uniquely human qualities (e.g., responsibilty) Reflects the origins of many self-report measures of personality Personnel selection for military occupations (WW I and II) SC/C is complex combination of complex, late-maturing cognitive capacities and emotion/motivation (e.g., sensitivity to negative feedback) Again, the 3 super-factors are not totally parallel constructs

46 Self-Control/Constraint (SC/C) Caspi et al. ARP 2005 SC/C differs from the other superfactors in key ways Emphasis on cognition (e.g., selective attention) Reduced emphasis on emotional reactivity and motivation Increased emphasis on complex, uniquely human qualities (e.g., responsibilty) Reflects the origins of many self-report measures of personality Personnel selection for military occupations (WW I and II) SC/C is complex combination of complex, late-maturing cognitive capacities and emotion/motivation (e.g., sensitivity to negative feedback) Again, the 3 super-factors are not totally parallel constructs

47 Self-Control/Constraint (SC/C) Caspi et al. ARP 2005 SC/C differs from the other superfactors in key ways Emphasis on cognition (e.g., selective attention) Reduced emphasis on emotional reactivity and motivation Increased emphasis on complex, uniquely human qualities (e.g., responsibilty) Reflects the origins of many self-report measures of personality Personnel selection for military occupations (WW I and II) SC/C is complex combination of complex, late-maturing cognitive capacities and emotion/motivation (e.g., sensitivity to negative feedback) Again, the 3 super-factors are not totally parallel constructs

48 Hierarchy of Broad  Narrow Traits Zentner et al. 2012; cf. Caspi et al 2005

49 Hierarchy of Broad  Narrow Traits Zentner et al. 2012; cf. Caspi et al 2005

50 N/NE Caspi et al. ARP more specific (lower-order) traits 1.Anxious Distress [Basic Emotion = Fear] inner-focused (feeling bad) anxiety, sadness, insecurity, & guilt motivation = withdrawal this specific trait is more closely related to Big 5 Neuroticism 2.Irritable Distress [Basic Emotion = Anger] Outward-focused (feeling angry or thwarted) Motivation = approach hostility, anger, jealousy, frustration, and irritation Akin to distinction between internalizing (anx/depression) vs. externalizing (antisocial behavior) disorders There is robust evidence that anxious and irritable distress have distinct neural substrates, suggesting that not all ‘negative’ emotions can be lumped together

51 N/NE Caspi et al. ARP more specific (lower-order) traits 1.Anxious Distress [Basic Emotion = Fear] inner-focused (feeling bad) anxiety, sadness, insecurity, & guilt motivation = withdrawal this specific trait is more closely related to Big 5 Neuroticism 2.Irritable Distress [Basic Emotion = Anger] outward-focused (feeling angry or thwarted) motivation = approach hostility, anger, jealousy, frustration, and irritation

52 N/NE Caspi et al. ARP more specific (lower-order) traits 1.Anxious Distress [Basic Emotion = Fear] inner-focused (feeling bad) anxiety, sadness, insecurity, & guilt motivation = withdrawal this specific trait is more closely related to Big 5 Neuroticism 2.Irritable Distress [Basic Emotion = Anger] outward-focused (feeling angry or thwarted) motivation = approach hostility, anger, jealousy, frustration, and irritation

53 N/NE Caspi et al. ARP more specific (lower-order) traits 1.Anxious Distress [Basic Emotion = Fear] inner-focused (feeling bad) anxiety, sadness, insecurity, & guilt motivation = withdrawal this specific trait is more closely related to Big 5 Neuroticism 2.Irritable Distress [Basic Emotion = Anger] outward-focused (feeling angry or thwarted) motivation = approach hostility, anger, jealousy, frustration, and irritation Akin to the distinction in psychiatry between internalizing (anx/depression) vs. externalizing (antisocial behavior) disorders There is robust evidence that anxious and irritable distress have distinct neural substrates, suggesting that not all ‘negative’ emotions can be lumped together (Eddie Harmon-Jones)

54 E/PE Caspi et al. ARP 2005 Four specific (lower-order) traits 1.Low Social Inhibition/Shyness reluctance to act and feelings of discomfort in social encounters multidimensional trait combining low approach, high NE, and high behavioral avoidance 2.High Sociability preference to be with others & seek close relationships may tap approach/PE 3.High Dominance assertive and confident, to exert control over others, and to capture and enjoy others’ attention 4.High Energy/Activity Key Take Home: Even narrow traits are messy!

55 E/PE Caspi et al. ARP 2005 Four specific (lower-order) traits 1.Low Social Inhibition/Shyness reluctance to act and feelings of discomfort in social encounters multidimensional trait combining low approach, high NE, and high behavioral avoidance 2.High Sociability preference to be with others & seek close relationships may tap approach/PE 3.High Dominance assertive and confident, to exert control over others, and to capture and enjoy others’ attention 4.High Energy/Activity Key Take Home: Even narrow traits are messy!

56 E/PE Caspi et al. ARP 2005 Four specific (lower-order) traits 1.Low Social Inhibition/Shyness reluctance to act and feelings of discomfort in social encounters multidimensional trait combining low approach, high NE, and high behavioral avoidance 2.High Sociability preference to be with others & seek close relationships may tap approach/PE 3.High Dominance assertive and confident, to exert control over others, and to capture and enjoy others’ attention 4.High Energy/Activity Key Take Home: Even narrow traits are messy!

57 E/PE Caspi et al. ARP 2005 Four specific (lower-order) traits 1.Low Social Inhibition/Shyness reluctance to act and feelings of discomfort in social encounters multidimensional trait combining low approach, high NE, and high behavioral avoidance 2.High Sociability preference to be with others & seek close relationships may tap approach/PE 3.High Dominance assertive and confident, to exert control over others, and to capture and enjoy others’ attention 4.High Energy/Activity Key Take Home: Even narrow traits are messy!

58 E/PE Caspi et al. ARP 2005 Four specific (lower-order) traits 1.Low Social Inhibition/Shyness reluctance to act and feelings of discomfort in social encounters multidimensional trait combining low approach, high NE, and high behavioral avoidance 2.High Sociability preference to be with others & seek close relationships may tap approach/PE 3.High Dominance assertive and confident, to exert control over others, and to capture and enjoy others’ attention 4.High Energy/Activity Key Take Home: Even narrow traits are messy!

59 E/PE Caspi et al. ARP 2005 Four specific (lower-order) traits 1.Low Social Inhibition/Shyness reluctance to act and feelings of discomfort in social encounters multidimensional trait combining low approach, high NE, and high behavioral avoidance 2.High Sociability preference to be with others & seek close relationships may tap approach/PE 3.High Dominance assertive and confident, to exert control over others, and to capture and enjoy others’ attention 4.High Energy/Activity Key Take Home: Even narrow traits are messy!

60 C/SC Caspi et al. ARP 2005 Six lower-order traits 1.Low Impulsivity 2.High Selective Attention 3. High Achievement Motivation 4.High Orderliness 5.High Responsibility 6.High Conventionality

61 C/SC Caspi et al. ARP 2005 Six lower-order traits 1.Low Impulsivity 2.High Selective Attention 3. High Achievement Motivation 4.High Orderliness 5.High Responsibility 6.High Conventionality

62 C/SC Caspi et al. ARP 2005 Six lower-order traits 1.Low Impulsivity planful, cautious, and controlled vs. incautious, careless/carefree, and impulsive 2.High Selective Attention Selective attention: more immune to distractions, focused Cognitive control: regulation of attention and behavior when prepotent and habitual responses are not sufficient to achieve goals (cf. Shackman et al Nature Rev Neuro 2011) 3. Achievement Motivation strive for high standards and pursue goals over time in a persistent, determined manner 4. Orderliness neat, clean, & organized vs. sloppy and disorderly maps closely onto Big Five Conscientiousness

63 C/SC Caspi et al. ARP 2005 Six lower-order traits 1.Low Impulsivity planful, cautious, and controlled vs. incautious, careless/carefree, and impulsive 2.High Selective Attention Selective attention: more immune to distractions, focused Cognitive control: regulation of attention and behavior when prepotent and habitual responses are not sufficient to achieve goals (cf. Shackman et al Nature Rev Neuro 2011) 3. Achievement Motivation strive for high standards and pursue goals over time in a persistent, determined manner 4. Orderliness neat, clean, & organized vs. sloppy and disorderly maps closely onto Big Five Conscientiousness

64 C/SC Caspi et al. ARP 2005 Six lower-order traits 1.Low Impulsivity planful, cautious, and controlled vs. incautious, careless/carefree, and impulsive 2.High Selective Attention Selective attention: more immune to distractions, focused Cognitive control: regulation of attention and behavior when prepotent and habitual responses are not sufficient to achieve goals (cf. Shackman et al Nature Rev Neuro 2011) 3. Achievement Motivation strive for high standards and pursue goals over time in a persistent, determined manner 4. Orderliness neat, clean, & organized vs. sloppy and disorderly maps closely onto Big Five Conscientiousness

65 C/SC Caspi et al. ARP 2005 Six lower-order traits 1.Low Impulsivity planful, cautious, and controlled vs. incautious, careless/carefree, and impulsive 2.High Selective Attention Selective attention: more immune to distractions, focused Cognitive control: regulation of attention and behavior when prepotent and habitual responses are not sufficient to achieve goals (cf. Shackman et al Nature Rev Neuro 2011) 3. Achievement Motivation strive for high standards and pursue goals over time in a persistent, determined manner 4. Orderliness neat, clean, & organized vs. sloppy and disorderly maps closely onto Big Five Conscientiousness

66 C/SC Caspi et al. ARP Responsibility dependable vs. undependable 6. Conventionality uphold traditions & norms strongest predictors of avoiding risky behaviors (substance abuse)

67 C/SC Caspi et al. ARP Responsibility dependable vs. undependable 6. Conventionality uphold traditions & norms strongest predictors of avoiding risky behaviors (substance abuse)

68 Students— So, should we think of T&P as cognitive, emotional, or a blend?

69 Zentner et al Effortful control involves both cognitive and emotional traits, underscoring the idea that T&P is not just mood or emotion regulation T&P = Emotion + Cognition

70 Students— Do traits act in isolation?

71 Traits Interact to Predict Outcome Zentner et al Traits do not act in isolation, but interact to predict important outcomes, e.g., Depression = High N/NE + Low E/PE (double whammy effect: intense distress to threat and negative outcomes AND reduced sensitivity to rewards and positive experiences that might lift mood)

72 Traits Interact to Predict Outcome Zentner et al Traits do not act in isolation, but interact to predict important outcomes, e.g., Depression = High N/NE + Low E/PE (double whammy effect: intense distress to threat and negative outcomes AND reduced sensitivity to rewards and positive experiences that might lift mood)

73 Are particular traits good or evil? Or are they adaptive to the extent that they are a good fit with the environment (e.g, occupation, level of danger in one’s neighborhood)

74 Not just hypothetical…

75 Are particular traits good or evil? Or are they adaptive to the extent that they are a good fit with the environment (e.g, occupation, level of danger in one’s neighborhood)

76 Most traits are a double- edged sword

77 “Parents should appreciate that each of these [traits] has advantages and disadvantages A technological economy requires a college education. Students with higher grade point averages in high school are more likely to be accepted at better colleges and therefore have a higher probability of attaining a gratifying, economically productive career. High-reactive children [kids who are reticent, inhibited, and distressed by strangers and novelty] raised in middle-class homes are more concerned with academic failure and therefore more likely to have an academic record that will gain them admission to an excellent college. Adolescents who were high-reactive infants often choose locations that allow them to work in environments where they can control the level of uncertainty. Such work allows some control over each day’s settings and events, keeping unanticipated interactions with strangers to a minimum. In addition, high- reactives tend to avoid risk and are therefore less likely to drive at high speeds, experiment with drugs, engage in sex at an early age, or cheat on examinations.”

78 Most traits are a double- edged sword “Parents should appreciate that each of these [traits] has advantages and disadvantages A technological economy requires a college education. Students with higher grade point averages in high school are more likely to be accepted at better colleges and therefore have a higher probability of attaining a gratifying, economically productive career. High-reactive children [kids who are reticent, inhibited, and distressed by strangers and novelty] raised in middle-class homes are more concerned with academic failure and therefore more likely to have an academic record that will gain them admission to an excellent college. Adolescents who were high-reactive infants often choose locations that allow them to work in environments where they can control the level of uncertainty. Such work allows some control over each day’s settings and events, keeping unanticipated interactions with strangers to a minimum. In addition, high- reactives tend to avoid risk and are therefore less likely to drive at high speeds, experiment with drugs, engage in sex at an early age, or cheat on examinations.”

79 Most traits are a double- edged sword “Parents should appreciate that each of these [traits] has advantages and disadvantages A technological economy requires a college education. Students with higher grade point averages in high school are more likely to be accepted at better colleges and therefore have a higher probability of attaining a gratifying, economically productive career. High-reactive children [kids who are reticent, inhibited, and distressed by strangers and novelty] raised in middle-class homes are more concerned with academic failure and therefore more likely to have an academic record that will gain them admission to an excellent college. Adolescents who were high-reactive infants often choose locations that allow them to work in environments where they can control the level of uncertainty. Such work allows some control over each day’s settings and events, keeping unanticipated interactions with strangers to a minimum. In addition, high- reactives tend to avoid risk and are therefore less likely to drive at high speeds, experiment with drugs, engage in sex at an early age, or cheat on examinations.”

80 Most traits are a double- edged sword “Parents should appreciate that each of these [traits] has advantages and disadvantages A technological economy requires a college education. Students with higher grade point averages in high school are more likely to be accepted at better colleges and therefore have a higher probability of attaining a gratifying, economically productive career. High-reactive children [kids who are reticent, inhibited, and distressed by strangers and novelty] raised in middle-class homes are more concerned with academic failure and therefore more likely to have an academic record that will gain them admission to an excellent college. Adolescents who were high-reactive infants often choose locations that allow them to work in environments where they can control the level of uncertainty. Such work allows some control over each day’s settings and events, keeping unanticipated interactions with strangers to a minimum. In addition, high- reactives tend to avoid risk and are therefore less likely to drive at high speeds, experiment with drugs, engage in sex at an early age, or cheat on examinations.”

81

82 Continuity & Change: Fixed or flexible? Caspi et al., ARP 2005

83 Students: How do we quantify the stability of individual differences in T&P? Which statistical test?

84 Measuring Continuity Test-retest correlations over time

85 R = 0.4 to 0.6 (16 to 36% variance) over periods of one to several years Similar estimates across traits (N/NE vs. E/PE), assessment techniques (ratings, observers), and sexes (males/females) Does childhood temperament predict adult personality? Significant but modest  R’s =.20 to.30 (4 to 10% variance) Is T&P fixed and unchanging across the decades of the complete lifespan? No! R’s =.20 to.40 (4 to 36% variance) You might not recognize the 70 y.o. based on an assessment in late childhood There is considerable room for plasticity, growth, and intervention! Individual Differences in T&P Are Significantly But Modestly Stable Across the Lifespan

86 R = 0.4 to 0.6 (16 to 36% variance) over periods of one to several years Similar estimates across traits (N/NE vs. E/PE), assessment techniques (ratings, observers), and sexes (males/females) Does childhood temperament predict adult personality? Significant but modest  R’s =.20 to.30 (4 to 10% variance) Is T&P fixed and unchanging across the decades of the complete lifespan? No! R’s =.20 to.40 (4 to 36% variance) You might not recognize the 70 y.o. based on an assessment in late childhood There is considerable room for plasticity, growth, and intervention! Individual Differences in T&P Are Significantly But Modestly Stable Across the Lifespan

87 R = 0.4 to 0.6 (16 to 36% variance) over periods of one to several years Similar estimates across traits (N/NE vs. E/PE), assessment techniques (ratings, observers), and sexes (males/females) Does childhood temperament predict adult personality? Significant but modest  R’s =.20 to.30 (4 to 10% variance). Kids ‘grow out of it’ to some degree Is T&P fixed and unchanging across the decades of the complete lifespan? No! R’s =.20 to.40 (4 to 36% variance) You might not recognize the 70 y.o. based on an assessment in late childhood There is considerable room for plasticity, growth, and intervention! Individual Differences in T&P Are Significantly But Modestly Stable Across the Lifespan

88 R = 0.4 to 0.6 (16 to 36% variance) over periods of one to several years Similar estimates across traits (N/NE vs. E/PE), assessment techniques (ratings, observers), and sexes (males/females) Does childhood temperament predict adult personality? Significant but modest  R’s =.20 to.30 (4 to 10% variance). Kids ‘grow out of it’ to some degree Is T&P fixed and unchanging across the decades of the complete lifespan? No! R’s =.20 to.40 (4 to 36% variance) You might not recognize the 70 y.o. based on an assessment in late childhood There is considerable room for plasticity, growth, and intervention! Individual Differences in T&P Are Significantly But Modestly Stable Across the Lifespan

89 R = 0.4 to 0.6 (16 to 36% variance) over periods of one to several years Similar estimates across traits (N/NE vs. E/PE), assessment techniques (ratings, observers), and sexes (males/females) Does childhood temperament predict adult personality? Significant but modest  R’s =.20 to.30 (4 to 10% variance). Kids ‘grow out of it’ to some degree Is T&P fixed and unchanging across the decades of the complete lifespan? No! R’s =.20 to.40 (4 to 36% variance) You might not recognize the 70 y.o. based on an assessment in late childhood There is considerable room for plasticity, growth, and intervention! Individual Differences in T&P Are Significantly But Modestly Stable Across the Lifespan

90 R = 0.4 to 0.6 (16 to 36% variance) over periods of one to several years Similar estimates across traits (N/NE vs. E/PE), assessment techniques (ratings, observers), and sexes (males/females) Does childhood temperament predict adult personality? Significant but modest  R’s =.20 to.30 (4 to 10% variance). Kids ‘grow out of it’ to some degree Is T&P fixed and unchanging across the decades of the complete lifespan? No! R’s =.20 to.40 (4 to 36% variance) You might not recognize the 70 y.o. based on an assessment in late childhood There is considerable room for plasticity, growth, and intervention! Individual Differences in T&P Are Significantly But Modestly Stable Across the Lifespan

91 Continuity &Change: Key Points In our culture it is widely believed that you are born with a ‘certain temperament’ or disposition, that remains with you throughout life. This is certainly true, but T&P is not fixed. If anything, the extant longitudinal data suggests that T&P is remarkably plastic, certainly more plastic than fixed, at least over longer time frames Hope! Therefore, intervention makes a lot of sense. T&P is stable, but not that stable.. This underscores the potential positive impact of well- designed interventions and means that personal growth is a serious possibility. Your childhood (or even middle aged) T&P is not your destiny!!

92 Continuity &Change: Key Points In our culture it is widely believed that you are born with a ‘certain temperament’ or disposition, that remains with you throughout life. This is certainly true, but T&P is not fixed. If anything, the extant longitudinal data suggests that T&P is remarkably plastic, certainly more plastic than fixed, at least over longer time frames Hope! Therefore, intervention makes a lot of sense. T&P is stable, but not that stable.. This underscores the potential positive impact of well- designed interventions and means that personal growth is a serious possibility. Your childhood (or even middle aged) T&P is not your destiny!!

93 Continuity &Change: Key Points In our culture it is widely believed that you are born with a ‘certain temperament’ or disposition, that remains with you throughout life. This is certainly true, but T&P is not fixed. If anything, the extant longitudinal data suggests that T&P is remarkably plastic, certainly more plastic than fixed, at least over longer time frames Hope! Therefore, intervention makes a lot of sense. T&P is stable, but not that stable.. This underscores the potential positive impact of well- designed interventions and means that personal growth is a serious possibility. Your childhood (or even middle aged) T&P is not your destiny!!

94 Continuity &Change: Key Points In our culture it is widely believed that you are born with a ‘certain temperament’ or disposition, that remains with you throughout life. This is certainly true, but T&P is not fixed. If anything, the extant longitudinal data suggests that T&P is remarkably plastic, certainly more plastic than fixed, at least over longer time frames Hope! Therefore, intervention makes a lot of sense. T&P is stable, but not that stable.. This underscores the potential positive impact of well- designed interventions and means that personal growth is a serious possibility. Your childhood (or even middle aged) T&P is not your destiny!!

95 These data beg the question: What explains continuity in traits; why isn’t T&P even more malleable?

96 What Are the Mechanisms Supporting Continuity & Impact? Traits affect interpersonal relations 1. Selection: People select their interactional contexts Choose partners who resemble them Create interpersonal experiences that reinforce initial tendencies 2. Exposure: T&P influence exposure to relationship events E.g., N/NE are more likely to be exposed to daily conflicts in their relationships 3. Reactivity: T&P shape reactions to others’ behavior E.g., N/NE are more likely to escalate negative affect during conflict 4. Evocation: T&P evoke behaviors from partners that contribute to relationship quality E.g., N/NE are prone to express deleterious behaviors (criticism, contempt, defensiveness, & stonewalling)

97 Students— What is one way in which a trait could impact social relations (e.g., mother-child, husband-wife) in ways that reinforce the trait?

98 What Are the Mechanisms Supporting Continuity & Impact? Traits affect interpersonal relations 1. Selection: People select their interactional contexts Choose partners who resemble them Create interpersonal experiences that reinforce initial tendencies 2. Exposure: T&P influence exposure to relationship events E.g., N/NE are more likely to be exposed to daily conflicts in their relationships; (Aside: exposure to other events, e.g., teen shares) 3. Reactivity: T&P shape reactions to others’ behavior E.g., N/NE are more likely to escalate negative affect during conflict 4. Evocation: T&P evoke behaviors from partners that contribute to relationship quality E.g., N/NE are prone to express deleterious behaviors (criticism, contempt, defensiveness, & stonewalling)

99 What Are the Mechanisms Supporting Continuity & Impact? Traits affect interpersonal relations 1. Selection: People select their interactional contexts Choose partners who resemble them Create interpersonal experiences that reinforce initial tendencies 2. Exposure: T&P influence exposure to relationship events E.g., N/NE are more likely to be exposed to daily conflicts in their relationships; (Aside: exposure to other events, e.g., teen shares) 3. Reactivity: T&P shape reactions to others’ behavior E.g., N/NE are more likely to escalate negative affect during conflict 4. Evocation: T&P evoke behaviors from partners that contribute to relationship quality E.g., N/NE are prone to express deleterious behaviors (criticism, contempt, defensiveness, & stonewalling)

100 What Are the Mechanisms Supporting Continuity & Impact? Traits affect interpersonal relations 1. Selection: People select their interactional contexts Choose partners who resemble them Create interpersonal experiences that reinforce initial tendencies 2. Exposure: T&P influence exposure to relationship events E.g., N/NE are more likely to be exposed to daily conflicts in their relationships; (Aside: exposure to other events, e.g., teen shares) 3. Reactivity: T&P shape reactions to others’ behavior E.g., N/NE are more likely to escalate negative affect during conflict 4. Evocation: T&P evoke behaviors from partners that contribute to relationship quality E.g., N/NE are prone to express deleterious behaviors (criticism, contempt, defensiveness, & stonewalling)

101 What Are the Mechanisms Supporting Continuity & Impact? Traits affect interpersonal relations 1. Selection: People select their interactional contexts Choose partners who resemble them Create interpersonal experiences that reinforce initial tendencies 2. Exposure: T&P influence exposure to relationship events E.g., N/NE are more likely to be exposed to daily conflicts in their relationships; (Aside: exposure to other events, e.g., teen shares) 3. Reactivity: T&P shape reactions to others’ behavior E.g., N/NE are more likely to escalate negative affect during conflict 4. Evocation: T&P evoke behaviors from partners that contribute to relationship quality E.g., N/NE are prone to express deleterious behaviors (criticism, contempt, defensiveness, & stonewalling)

102 Recap…

103 What is T&P? Trait-like individual differences in emotional and cognitive biases that first emerge early in life (but continue to evolve for many years) that account for consistency in behavior, inner experience, and risk across time and contexts Can be relatively simple (e.g., anxious distress) or complex and multiply determined (orderliness) Organized into 3 broad-band factors (N/NE, E/PE, and C/SC) that show some continuity across life

104 What is T&P? Trait-like individual differences in emotional and cognitive biases that first emerge early in life (but continue to evolve for many years) that account for consistency in behavior, inner experience, and risk across time and contexts Can be relatively simple (e.g., anxious distress) or complex and multiply determined (orderliness) Organized into 3 broad-band factors (N/NE, E/PE, and C/SC) that show some continuity across life

105 What is T&P? Trait-like individual differences in emotional and cognitive biases that first emerge early in life (but continue to evolve for many years) that account for consistency in behavior, inner experience, and risk across time and contexts Can be relatively simple (e.g., anxious distress) or complex and multiply determined (orderliness) Organized into 3 broad-band factors (N/NE, E/PE, and C/SC) that show some continuity across life

106 What is T&P? Trait-like individual differences in emotional and cognitive biases that first emerge early in life (but continue to evolve for many years) that account for consistency in behavior, inner experience, and risk across time and contexts Can be relatively simple (e.g., anxious distress) or complex and multiply determined (orderliness) Organized into 3 broad-band factors (N/NE, E/PE, and C/SC) that show some continuity across life

107 Critical Thinking Questions

108 1.The 3 broadband traits (E/PE, N/NE, and C/SC) and their narrow-band constituents are messy, and seem to include mixtures of overlapping motivations, emotions, and cognitions Ultimately, this multi-dimensional messiness impedes the search for underlying mechanisms. There is probably not a circumscribed set of genes or brain circuits for something as complex as ‘punctuality’. What do you think? What kinds of research strategies would help us to circumvent this issue and accelerate progress to understand the psychological, neural, or genetic underpinnings of T&P?

109 Critical Thinking Questions 1.The 3 broadband traits (E/PE, N/NE, and C/SC) and their narrow-band constituents are messy, and seem to include mixtures of overlapping motivations, emotions, and cognitions Ultimately, this multi-dimensional messiness impedes the search for underlying mechanisms. There is probably not a circumscribed set of genes or a single well-defined brain circuit for something as complex as ‘punctuality’. What do you think? What kinds of research strategies would help us to circumvent this issue and accelerate progress to understand the psychological, neural, or genetic underpinnings of T&P?

110 Critical Thinking Questions 1.The 3 broadband traits (E/PE, N/NE, and C/SC) and their narrow-band constituents are messy, and seem to include mixtures of overlapping motivations, emotions, and cognitions Ultimately, this multi-dimensional messiness impedes the search for underlying mechanisms. There is probably not a circumscribed set of genes or a single well-defined brain circuit for something as complex as ‘punctuality’. What do you think? What kinds of research strategies might help us to circumvent this issue and accelerate progress to understand the psychological, neural, or genetic underpinnings of T&P?

111 Critical Thinking Questions 2. We briefly touched on the idea that some things that are interesting, like depression, seem to reflect interactions of multiple traits (low E/PE and high N/NE). What do you think? Briefly describe another phenomenon of interest (perhaps based on your research or personal experiences) that likely reflects the action of more than one component of T&P.

112 Critical Thinking Questions 2. We briefly touched on the idea that some things that are interesting, like depression, seem to reflect interactions of multiple traits (low E/PE and high N/NE). What do you think? Briefly describe another phenomenon of interest (perhaps based on your research or personal experiences) that seems to reflect the action of more than one component of T&P.

113 Critical Thinking Questions Length: 1 paragraph per question (i.e., total of 2 separate paragraphs) for a total of ~0.5 – 1 page (12 pt font; single- spaced) Due: 9:00am Thursday Submit: “Assignment” tab in Canvas Upload: Word document (.doc or.docx) Grading: 1 (full credit), 1⁄2 (half-credit), 0 (no credit). At the end of the semester, your two lowest response grades will be dropped.

114 The End

115 Things to consider adding

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117 Aging …

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