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The following Powerpoint presentation was used to present my research proposal in my Developmental Psychology class. The research proposal discussed how.

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Presentation on theme: "The following Powerpoint presentation was used to present my research proposal in my Developmental Psychology class. The research proposal discussed how."— Presentation transcript:

1 The following Powerpoint presentation was used to present my research proposal in my Developmental Psychology class. The research proposal discussed how parenting style and parental attachment influence adolescent academic achievement. The sections of this powerpoint highlights the sections of a research proposal. It included a summary of the Introduction where I identified my research question, hypothesis, target population, and defined key terms. Next, I reviewed relevant literature related to my topic and presented my problem statement. Afterwards, the Methods section was reviewed in subcategories of participants, instruments, and procedures. In the Results section, I discussed how I would propose to analyze the data. The presentation ends with a discussion of limitations and implications followed by a list of References.

2 Parenting Style & Attachment
On Adolescence Academic Achievement Christine Tom

3 Literature Review Many research has focused on how parenting styles and attachment impacts the development of a child. Although, these two concepts may seem like separate ideas, they are related(Scott et al. 2011). Key Terms: Parenting Style: the different ways in which parents socialize young children to learn how to function successfully in society (Baumrind, 1978). Attachment: the relationship shared between the parent and the child throughout this socializing process. Attachment Theory: the patterns in the relationship shared between the caregiver and the child (Bowlby, 1969; Ainsworth, 1979).

4 Literature Review WHY ADOLESCENTS?
Research on parenting style and parental attachment were originally developed to study parent-child relationships in young children. However, studies have shown that parenting style and attachment are believed to be active socializing processes that are present and relevant throughout the lifespan and the development of a child (Dykas & Cassidy, 2011). As children develop into adolescents, they gain more autonomy and awareness. They start to explore their social environment and relationships with family and friends. Adolescence marks a time of change in the child’s and family’s life. (Spera, 2005).

5 Literature Review Authoritarian Authoritative Permissive Rejecting/
Parenting Style: Diana Baumrind (1978) She found that authoritative parenting style offered the best childrearing results. High Control Authoritarian Authoritative Low Warmth High Warmth Rejecting/ Neglecting Permissive Low Control Maccoby & Martin (1983)

6 Literature Review Authoritarian vs. Authoritative: Authoritative
In the following slides, we will review the literature regarding the different outcomes between authoritative and authoritarian parenting style.

7 Literature Review Authoritarian vs. Authoritative:
Baumrind (1971) observed the patterns of parenting style on behaviors in preschool children. Authoritative parenting was associated with children with more independent, purposive, and dominant behaviors than children of authoritarian parenting. Baumrind (2011) developed a longitudinal study that studied the effects of preschool parenting style patterns on adolescent development. Preschool children who were classified as authoritative were pro social and well-adjusted as authoritative adolescents. Authoritarian adolescents were incompetent and not adjusted. Children had low self-esteem and internalized problems. Parenting Style Related to the Education of Adolescents: Blondal & Adalbajarnardottir (2009) Adolescents who classified their parents as authoritative were more likely to have completed upper secondary schools. Strong quality relationships between parent and child will reduce school dropout rates. Spera (2005) Authoritative style of parenting is associated with higher academic achievement in adolescents. Found indication that parental involvement declines in adolescence. Parents believe children should have more autonomy in their lives and make decisions on their own.

8 Literature Review Attachment: Securely Attached Insecure-Avoidant
Bowlby’s early theory on attachment was based on research and observations of attachment found in animals. Bowlby found that patterns of attachment were observed to be present across lifespan (Bowlby, 1979). Ainsworth (1979) expanded Bowlby’s research. She observed the reactions of infants in a study named the “Strange Situation.” She presented three patterns of attachment: Young animals would remain close proximity to their mother (Crain, 2011). Securely Attached Insecure-Avoidant Insecure-Ambivalent Disorganized Main & Soloman (1986)

9 Literature Review Parental Attachment and Adolescents:
Duchesene & Larose (2007) provided evidence that the quality of parental attachment in adolescence influenced academic motivation and performance. Bosman et al. (2011) studied the effects of power assertive discipline (penalty tasks: chores, loss of privileges). When parents used power assertive discipline, higher levels of internalizing problems were reported by adolescents. These children were classified to be in a less secure attachment. Parenting Style and Attachment: Although attachment and parenting styles have distinctive impacts on a child, they are related (Scott et al. 2011). Early attachment and positive parenting practices were found to be related to psychosocial and behavioral outcomes in adolescence (Washington & Dunham 2011). In Cenkeseven-Onder et al. (2010), parenting style and parental attachment were found to influence high school decision making patterns. Adolescents with authoritative parents were more decisive when compared to adolescents of non-authoritative parents. Students with higher levels of attachment (secure) to their parents were more decisive than their peers with lower levels of levels of attachment.

10 Statement of Problem Hypothesis
Parenting style and attachment both influence the development of children throughout lifespan (Dykas & Cassidy, 2011). The relationship shared between the parent and the child is reflective of the child’s future. However, there are little studies that focus on how both can contribute to higher academic success. The goal of this research is to bring awareness to the significance of positive parenting styles and attachment in adolescents. How can parenting style and attachment influence academic achievement in adolescents? Authoritative parenting style and secure attachment will contribute to higher academic success in adolescents. Hypothesis

11 Methods Participants: Instruments Procedure:
200 adolescents were randomly selected from a random New York City public high school in Manhattan. Adolescents will be recruited in their classrooms during school hours through flyers and outreach by teachers. They will not receive monetary compensation for their participation. However, their classrooms will be entered into a drawing for a chance to receive popular concert tickets. Parents will be informed in advance through mail about the study. Instruments The Inventory of Parents and Peer Attachment, IPPA, (Armsden & Greenberg 2009): The inventory consist of 50 items and each item will be rated on a 5-point scale from Never True to Always True. The Mother and Father subscales will be used to measure adolescents’ perception of their relationships with their parents. They will be instructed to respond for the parent who influenced them the most if they had different relationships with their mothers and fathers. The Parenting Style Inventory, PSI, (Lamborn, Mounts, Steinberg, & Darnbush, 1991): The inventory consist of a 26 item scale that has three factors: acceptance/involvement, strictness/supervision, and psychological autonomy. Test-retest coefficients were .82 for acceptance/involvement, .88 for strictness/supervision, and .76 for psychological autonomy. Procedure: Participants will be notified prior to the study to bring a copy of their most recent report card and completed consent forms. On the day of the study, they will submit the required documents to the researcher and proceed with the study. They will have one hour to complete a demographics form, the Inventory of Parents and Peer Attachment (IPPA, 2009) and the Parenting Style Inventory (PSI, 1991).

12 Results Data will be collected from scores on the Inventory of Parent Peer Attachment (IPPA, 2009) and Parenting Style Inventory (PSI, 1991). The four parenting styles will be identified based on scores obtain from the scales of the IPPA. Acceptance/involvement (warmth), strictness/supervision (control) and psychological autonomy (authoritativeness). High attachment, medium attachment, and low attachment will be identified on scores from the scales of the Parenting Style Inventory. High attachment will be associated with Secure attachment. Participants’ scores from each inventory will be analyzed with scores their report cards. Each student will be classified as one of the following categories: high achieving, medium achieving, and low achieving based on their scores of their most recent report card. Researchers will hope to find that students who are classified as high achieving: Reported themselves to be authoritative on the IPPA. Reported themselves to have high attachment (securely attached) on the PSI.

13 Discussion Evidence in results will have indicated that students with higher grades will have perceived their parents to be authoritative (Spera, 2005; Baumrind et al. 2011) and have a secure attachment with their parents (Duchesne & Larose, 2007). Limitations: Threats to internal validity: Small sample size. Threats to external validity: Participants were selected from one school. Results may not generalize to private or parochial schools. The urban population of NYC public schools may not generalize to schools in suburban and rural communities.

14 Discussion Implications:
The findings in the study hope to contribute to the awareness of the significance of parental involvement in a child’s life. Regardless of the child’s age, parents will remain as socializing agents throughout their child’s lifespan (Dykas & Cassidy, 2011). Relationships shared between a parent and a child is reflective of the child’s future. (Spera, 2005). Awareness of the impacts of different parenting styles and attachment can help parents learn effective ways to communicate and socialize their children. The study also brings attention to the age of adolescence. Adolescence marks a time where children are exploring and making future life changing decisions. Positive parenting will encourage adolescents to have positive attitudes and practices towards achievement in school (Duchesene & Larose, 2007, Blondal & Adalbajarnardottir, 2009; Cenkseven-Onder et al. 2010; Washington & Dunham 2011). Future studies should extend this present research by studying the effects of parenting styles and parental attachment on adult career patterns and success.

15 References Ainsworth, M. S. (1989). Attachments beyond infancy. American Psychologist, 44(4), doi: / X Armsden, G., Greenberg, M. T. (2009). Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA). Baumrind, D. (1971). Current patterns of parental authority. Developmental Psychology, 4(1), doi: /h Baumrind, D. (1978). Parental disciplinary patterns and social competence in children Youth & Society. Baumrind, D. (1980). New directions in socialization research. American Psychologist, 35(7), doi: / X Baumrind, D., Larzelere, R. E., & Owens, E. B. (2010). Effects of preschool parents' power assertive patterns and practices on adolescent development. Parenting: Science & Practice, 10(3), doi: / Blondal, K. S., & Adalbjarnardottir, S. (2009). Parenting practices and school dropout: A longitudinal study. Adolescence, 44(176), Bosmans, G., Braet, C., Beyers, W., Van Leeuwen, K., & Van Vlierberghe, L. (2011). Parents' power assertive discipline and internalizing problems in adolescents: The role of attachment. Parenting: Science and Practice, 11(1), doi: / Cenkseven-Onder, F., Kirdok, O., & Isik, E. (2010). High school students' career decision-making pattern across parenting styles and parental attachment levels. Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, 8(1), Crain, W. (2005). Theories of development: Concepts and applications. (6 ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice. Doyle, A. B., & Markiewicz, D. (2005). Parenting, marital conflict and adjustment from early- to mid-adolescence: Mediated by adolescent attachment style? Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 34(2), 97. Duchesne, S., & Larose, S. (2007). Adolescent parental attachment and academic motivation and performance in early adolescence. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 37(7), doi: /j x Dykas, M. J., & Cassidy, J. (2011). Attachment and the processing of social information across the life span: Theory and evidence. Psychological Bulletin, 137(1), doi: /a Kamphaus, R.W., & Reynolds, C. R. (2006). Parenting Relationship Questionnaire. Kerr, M., Stattin, H., & Özdemir, M. (2012). Perceived parenting style and adolescent adjustment: Revisiting directions of effects and the role of parental knowledge. Developmental Psychology, 48(6), doi: /a Scott, S., Briskman, J., Woolgar, M., Humayun, S., & O'Connor, T. G. (2011). Attachment in adolescence: Overlap with parenting and unique prediction of behavioural adjustment. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 52(10), doi: /j x Spera, C. (2005). A review of the relationship among parenting practices, parenting styles, and adolescent school achievement. Educational Psychology Review, 17(2), doi: /s Washington, A., & Dunham, M. (2011). Early parenting practices and outcomes for adolescents. Educational Research Quarterly, 35(2),

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