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By Lily S-R and Victoria S

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1 By Lily S-R and Victoria S
Cerebral Palsy By Lily S-R and Victoria S

2 Symptoms Symptoms can vary, but can include:
Variation in muscle tone (too floppy or stiff) Spasticity (stiff muscles/exaggerated reflexes) Rigidity (stiff muscles + normal reflexes) Ataxia (Lack of muscle coordination) Tremors/involuntary movement Athetosis (slow, writhing movements) Delays in motor skills milestones, speech development (or difficulty speaking) Excessive drooling/trouble swallowing Sméagol was experiencing drooling, involuntary movement, athetosis, difficulty speaking, and spasticity. This were noticed by his mother, who called the family doctor. He recommended she visit a Pediatric Neurologist. Sméagol was diagnosed with cerebral palsy.

3 Communication Error/Etiology
The cause of cerebral palsy is an abnormality in brain development, usually before a child is born. Factors that can lead to the abnormality are: random mutations, maternal or infantile infections, fetal stroke, lack of oxygen, or a traumatic head injury. The motor cortex sends impulses without stimulus or judgement, causing the drooling and spasms, and the Broca’s area doesn’t work properly, causing the speech-impediment. In the case of Sméagol, he had both a traumatic head injury from a car crash his mother was in and lack of oxygen due to the injury. This caused oxygen-deprivation that damaged brain cells in the motor cortex and the Broca’s area.

4 Treatment Medicine: Surgery:
Isolated Spasticity: If spasticity is located in one muscle, than a doctor may recommend Botox injections into the muscle. Generalized Spasticity: If spasticity affects the whole body, relaxant drugs, like Valium and Dantrium and Gablofen, could be prescribed. Surgery: Orthopedic Surgery: These surgeries can be used to lengthen muscles or tendons. This will improve mobility. Severing Nerves: Surgeons may cut the nerves that are causing the muscle spasms. This can relax the muscle, but cause numbness.

5 Treatment Cont. Therapies:
Physical: Muscle-training exercises to help strength and balance. Occupational: Using adaptive equipment and alternate theories, therapists work to promote a child’s independent participation in daily activities. Speech and Language: Speech-Language therapists help with communication, whether through speaking, sign language, or communication devices. Recreational: Improves motor skills, speech, and emotional well-being.

6 Treatment Cont. Sméagol was given Valium because he had spasticity in several appendicular muscles. He was given Orthopedic surgery to lengthen the muscles and tendons in his legs and arms, but he still had minor spasms that kept him on the relaxants. He has been placed in Physical Therapy, Recreational Therapy, and Speech and Language Therapy to help him live as normally as possible with his neurological condition.

7 Prognosis Most people with cerebral palsy experience a normal lifespan, with the help of many health-care professionals. While there is no cure, depending on the severity, their lives can be reasonably active. Concerning areas that can shorten lifespan in cerebral palsy cases include: severity of cerebral palsy, seizures, feeding difficulty, respiratory function, mobility restrictions, and cognitive function. Researchers have looked at cause/causal pathways, preventing brain injury/malformation and making intervention measures to prevent these, and repairing brain cells to restore function in damaged parts of the brain. Stem cell research has also been conducted, and tested on mice, to see if damaged cells could be fixed/replaced. This study indicated that missing cells could be replaced.

8 Career Component Sméagol was diagnosed by a Pediatric Neurologist with an M.D. in neurology to have Cerebral Palsy. After their son was diagnosed, Sméeagol’s parents hired a Pediatrician certified by the AMA to oversee the treatment plan and medical care. When Sméagol’s spasms became increasingly frequent, an Orthopedic Surgeon lengthened the muscles of his arms and legs to stop them from occurring. After the surgery, Sméagol worked with a physical therapist, a developmental therapist, and a Speech-Language Pathologist so he could move, act, and more easily. Sméagol’s parents worked with a Mental Health Specialist with a Master’s degree in psychology so they could cope with their son’s disease, a social worker to help find services for transition care, and a Special Education Teacher for Sméagol’s educational needs and resources.

9 Bibliography 8 Factors That Affect Life Span | Cerebral Palsy | (n.d.). Retrieved November 10, 2014, from [Broca Area. Electronic image] Cerebral palsy. (2013, August 16). Retrieved November 10, 2014, from Cerebral palsy. (2013, August 16). Retrieved November 10, 2014, from Cerebral palsy. (2013, August 16). Retrieved November 10, 2014, from Cerebral palsy. (2013, August 16). Retrieved November 10, 2014, from [Gollum. Electronic image] /N5ZXSmSR.jpeg Life Expectancy of Cerebral Palsy | (n.d.). Retrieved November 10, 2014, from [Motor Cortex. Electronic image]

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