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WELCOME STUDENTS Dr B’s Lifespan Development. THE PEOPLE AND THE FIELD MARKERS SHAPING DEVELOPMENT Impact of socioeconomic status developed and developing.

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Presentation on theme: "WELCOME STUDENTS Dr B’s Lifespan Development. THE PEOPLE AND THE FIELD MARKERS SHAPING DEVELOPMENT Impact of socioeconomic status developed and developing."— Presentation transcript:

1 WELCOME STUDENTS Dr B’s Lifespan Development

2 THE PEOPLE AND THE FIELD MARKERS SHAPING DEVELOPMENT Impact of socioeconomic status developed and developing world Impact of culture collectivist and individualistic societies !!!!!IMPACT OF COHORT!!!

3 Cohorts traveling through time: Scanning our evolving life-span Changing conceptions of children and childhood middle ages-21st century Life gets easier and we can have childhood EDUCATION EXTENDS CHILDHOOD MA l900 l940s------ -today adult at?------3--------primary school------high school/-Teenagerhood- --------- 25ish- Changing conceptions of the aged and Elderly Colonial era-21 st century ( 20 th century life expectancy revolution;Young old-old old; maximum life- span)

4 20 TH CENTURY LIFE EXPECTANCY REVOLUTION When it (mainly) happened (early 20 th century) 1900-1930s approx= added 25+ years to life!! Shift from infectious to chronic disease People living to later life THE YOUNG OLD and OLD OLD from frisky (60s & 70s) to frail 80+ Maximum lifespan= the longest you can live

5 Scanning life-expectancy in the developed world Why do women outlive men? Why do so many nations live longer than us? Is the 20 th century life expectancy revolution reversing?

6 Changing conceptions of adulthood, final third of the 20 th century (Baby boom cohort b 1946-61ish) TRACKING THE BABY BOOM 1950s----------- l960s ------------------------ 2013 2030 (born/child) teens young old old-old THE 60s lifestyle revolutions The age boom arrives THE 60s lifestyle REVOLUTIONS: An in depth view Women’s movement= women and men are “equal” at work; no defined gender roles in the family (theoretically) Sexual revolution= you can have sex before marriage; no sexual double standard= women are allowed to have sex too! ( a note: the civil rights movement; What is the last freedom movement?

7 The 60’s family revolution: downsides Great increase in divorce More women in their 20s give birth outside of marriage than within= Great increase in child poverty

8 A note on The GREAT Recession of 2008; and income inequalities Housing bubble meltdown; Income inequalities: Richest fifth Drop in spending; layoffs; richer( L) very rich much richer(R) Unemployment Part-time/wants to be full time

9 LENSES FOR INTERPRETING THE LIFESPAN: THEORIES General theories of behavior and the nature/ nurture perspective Nature= heredity Nurture= the environment

10 Traditional Behaviorism Emphasis on finding basic laws; who we are is shaped by nurture; no definite changes “with age Operant conditioning==get reinforced, learn Schedules of reinforcement Variable schedule= get reinforced irregularly, so keep going Applications of traditional behaviorism/variable reinforcement to everything from childrearing, to staying with your spouse, to living in a nursing home

11 BASIC BEHAVIORAL PRINCIPLES SUMMARIZED * it’s the reinforcer’s fault not the person’s.. In other words people are not basically good or bad (they easily change if we change the reinforcers) * to extinguish “bad” behavior be consistent. Never give in to cement “good” behavior in you need to fail (but only sometimes) Pay attention to positive behavior (ignore negative behavior== AKA use time out!)

12 Social learning theory/cognitive behaviorism -- human beings as thinkers A note on modeling who we model How modeling changes with age Self-efficacy– “I can do it if I work” Using efficacy feelings to predict school motivation feelings of confidence in romance Enhancing efficacy in kids and you

13 A note on Attachment theory love== everything; love you get early in life determines how you will love; Bowlby’s appeal== nurture (parenting/caregiving imp.) + nature (attachment response built into our human…and animal..biology… to keep us safe..)

14 Nature makes a comeback: behavioral genetics A historical look at the nature/nurture debate 0------------------------------- -l950’s/60s------------------- l970s-80’s Nature (blood/rank at birth) Behaviorism/nurture Beh genetics “the aristocracy” Hitler as an object lesson nature is A LOT!! “the master race” Exploring the medication revolution Exploring Behavioral genetic research

15 Twin and adoption studies-- their rationale; their method; the findings Twin studies described: Identical twins== same egg and sperm then split (genetic clones) Fraternals= 2 different egg and sperm unite; (like siblings) Adoption studies described; Compare adopted children with biological parents and adoptive parents. Thomas Me and my husband Maureen If more like bio parents (Maureen) its____________ If more like adoptive parents (my husband and I) its__________ Twin/adoption studies described Adopted at birth and go to DIFFERENT families! Scanning the amazing findings

16 WHERE WE ARE TODAY: NATURE AND NURTURE COMBINE. Our nature (biology) shapes our nurture (environment) evocative/active interaction we select our environments to fit our talents (active) our personality evokes certain responses from others (evocative). Paranoid people have enemies Loving people live in a caring world (Implications: as nature + nurture go together what start out as small differences become huge.. as we develop and grow into adulthood)

17 Nature and nurture interact Bidirectional influences children shape parents, spouses shape each other; teachers shape students; students shape teachers etc Fit environment to “best” self (person environment fit)== success

18 Postscript : Human Genetics can change!! (via nurture=the environment) Exploring the (tentative) triumph of our better angels Exploring the reality of the Flynn effect

19 THE “STAGES LINKED TO AGE” POINT OF VIEW Piaget's cognitive developmental approach learning through acting; qualitatively different stages of thinking; child’s world view is totally unlike our own (

20 Erikson’s psychosocial stages Emphasis on the developing self and relationships Age- linked developmental tasks A sampler (basic trust; auton

21 A summary

22 Putting it all together: developmental systems theory

23 TOOLS FOR STUDYING THE LIFESPAN: RESEARCH METHODS Why do research? Designing a standard quantitative study. Getting a hypothesis (moms who hit have kids who hit) 1) Measuring your concepts Naturalistic observation=watching the behavior (+s –’s) self reports= taking questionnaires (+s-’s) observer assessments= having experts rate behavior (+s-s)

24 Selecting your design—two types of research Correlational research -- finding relationships (what other forces could be causing the relationship between hitting moms & agg. kids?) Experimental research-- determining causes (Could you randomly assign kids to diff moms?)

25 How an experiment looks

26 Measuring development: two approaches Cross sectional studies (Diff ages at same time) 2013 age group 20 40 60 LONGITUDINAL STUDIES + - follow one or more groups 2013 2033 2053 at age 20---------------40---------------60 Longitudinal study fun facts: A sampler

27 PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT= step 1 getting to fertilization and implantation

28 Step 2= Making a baby= the embryonic stage(cephalocaudal, proximodistal, mass to specific principles )

29 Step 3= Fetal stage; massive growth; making a brain

30 Pregnancy from the mother’s (and dad’s) point of view landmarks of the trimesters 1-12---------------------------- 12-26---------------------27-40 morning sickness quickening BIG miscarriage ultrasound live BIRTH

31 The Emotional Context of Pregnancy pregnancy support pregnancy fears problems getting pregnant (and keeping the baby) assisted reproductive technologies

32 BIRTH COMPLICATIONS problems with getting the baby out(see drawing) Being born too soon Preterm labor; very low birth weight; neonatal intensive care

33 A history of childbirth and the growth of the natural childbirth movement Early 1900s (getting it together)— late l960s (au naturel comes on strong)--- today (a variety of choices

34 Issues and questions around birth technologies vs natural approaches poverty, childbirth and infant mortality (c-sections; infant mortality)

35 INFANCY (O-3) Developing Brain synaptogenesis;mylenation; blossoming and pruning phases; frontal lobes

36 Brain plasticity and its limits

37 Fascinating brain fun facts

38 Basic states 1: Eating From newborn reflexes to 2 year old food cautions Social issues and Eating rooting/sucking reflex breast feeding; stunting)

39 Stunting and malnutrition: A deeper look at the developing world and U.S.

40 Basic States 2: Crying and Sleeping crying changes; how to quiet a crying baby sleeping changes; how to GET THAT KID TO SLEEP!! Colic; Kangaroo care; self-soothing

41 Sensory and motor processes 1: vision The remarkable things newborns know about faces the remarkable things we learn NOT to see seeing and fearing heights (Visual cliff)

42 Focus on moving developmental milestones (and remarkable variability!) 4----------------------- 6----------------------------------------- -1ish lifts head (pushup phase ) scooting and its fab variations WALKING Safety issues (baby proofing)

43 Piaget’s sensory motor stage growth of sensory-motor thought circular reactions (primary, secondary, tertiary) little scientist behavior ition (Piaget’s sensory- motor stage) *The growth of sensory motor thought: learning by acting; stages of thinking (Circular reactions—primary, secondar tertiary—little scientist behavior) *The evolution of the object concept an means-end behavior

44 Piaget’s sensory motor stage cont. growth of object permanence A not B error means end- behavior

45 Language and social cognition Tracking emerging language Can babies understand emotions? (infant directed speech--IDS)

46 Attachment: the motor of human (and animal) life Making the case

47 The dance of attachment and the growth of the attachment response dance--- separation anxiety; stranger anxiety; clearcut attachment __________ 7-8_______________________3 _

48 Secure and insecure attachment characteristics causes

49 Deviations from the attachment norm No caring caregivers= Entering the Romanian orphanages; Multiple caring caregivers: the Elf

50 Day care scanning the state day care preschool

51 Choosing Day care

52 Toddlerhood The basic challenge: Autonomy (and socialization) Toddler temperaments: being exuberant and being shy

53 Temperament Summaries

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