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Marissa Mounts University of Virginia July 25, 2009 Exploring Early Predictors of Fine Motor Skills at Kindergarten Entry.

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Presentation on theme: "Marissa Mounts University of Virginia July 25, 2009 Exploring Early Predictors of Fine Motor Skills at Kindergarten Entry."— Presentation transcript:

1 Marissa Mounts University of Virginia July 25, 2009 Exploring Early Predictors of Fine Motor Skills at Kindergarten Entry

2 Theoretical Framework Fine Motor Skills Math and reading skills at kindergarten entry Academic achievement in 5 th grade Academic achievement in 5 th grade Biological Factors Biological Factors Environmental Factors Developmental Task (Grissmer & Eiseman, 2008) (Murrah, 2009) (Feldman, 2008) (Malina, 2004) (Feldman, 2008) (Malina, 2004)

3 Research Question: 1.What are the early predictors of fine motor skills at kindergarten entry? Fine Motor Skills Fine Motor Skills Demographics & Child Characteristics Demographics & Child Characteristics Childhood Opportunities & Activities Childhood Opportunities & Activities Parent-Child Interaction Parent-Child Interaction Readiness Expectations Readiness Expectations

4 Methods Sample: Early Childhood Longitudinal Study- Kindergarten Class (ECLS-K) of Nationally representative 21,000 children Over sampling of Asians and children in private schools Measures: parent report, teacher report, school report and child assessment Analytical sample: 15,919 Ordinary Least Squares Regression

5 Methods Demographics & Child Characteristics Demographics & Child Characteristics Childhood Opportunities & Activities Childhood Opportunities & Activities Parent-Child Interaction Parent-Child Interaction Readiness Expectations Readiness Expectations Race, sex, income, Birth weight, premature, Gross motor skills, Approaches to learning, Socioemotional skills Race, sex, income, Birth weight, premature, Gross motor skills, Approaches to learning, Socioemotional skills Activities: music, dance, drama, art, martial arts, sports, uses computer to draw; TV Amount of time spent in head start, preschool, non-relative care, relative care, center care. Neighborhood characteristics Activities: music, dance, drama, art, martial arts, sports, uses computer to draw; TV Amount of time spent in head start, preschool, non-relative care, relative care, center care. Neighborhood characteristics Parent reads, sings, does art, helps with chores, plays games, nature, and sports with child; Mother depression. Parent reads, sings, does art, helps with chores, plays games, nature, and sports with child; Mother depression. Parent and teacher: How important it is that child counts, shares, draws, is calm, knows letters, and communicates. Parent and teacher: How important it is that child counts, shares, draws, is calm, knows letters, and communicates. “Fine motor skills were assessed by having each child use building blocks to replicate a model, copy forms (e.g., an asterisk, a square) on paper, and draw a person” (ECLS-K). Fine Motor Skills Fine Motor Skills Fine Motor Skills Fine Motor Skills Demographics & Child Characteristics Demographics & Child Characteristics Childhood Opportunities & Activities Childhood Opportunities & Activities Parent-Child Interaction Parent-Child Interaction Readiness Expectations Readiness Expectations

6 Descriptive Statistics Table 1.1 VariableMinimumMaximumMeanSD Fine motor skills Birth weight Non-relative care Relative care Head Start Center care Pre-kindergarten TV (hrs/wk) Neighborhood Characteristics Parent-child interaction Parent-child interaction squared Mother's depression Parent's readiness expectations K teacher's readiness expectations

7 There are several strong predictors of fine motor skills. From these results, interventions in early childhood can be targeted at certain children: Low-income Males African Americans Younger kindergarteners Low birth weight. Table 2.1 Demographics and Child Characteristics Variableß (SE) Income0.00(0.00)*** Male-0.15(0.03)*** African American-0.51(0.05)*** Hispanic0.12(0.04)*** Asian0.77(0.11)*** Race-Other-0.04(0.08) First time kindergartener-0.04(0.08) Age0.10(0.00)*** Birth weight-0.12(0.01)*** Premature birth-0.06(0.04) Gross motor skills0.21(0.01)*** Approaches to learning0.37(0.04)*** Socioemotional skills0.40(0.05)*** *** p-value <.001 Results & Implications

8 Many childhood activities predict fine motor skills. Early childhood interventions can use specific activities to increase fine motor skills such as: Music Dance Use of computers Martial arts Art. Table 2.2 Childhood Opportunities and Activities Variableß (SE) Non-relative care 1-20 hrs/wk-.15(0.04)*** Non-relative care 21-40plus hrs/wk-0.29(0.05)*** Relative care 1-20 hrs/week-.03(0.05) Relative care 21-40plus hrs/wk-.09(0.07) Head Start 1-20 hrs/wk-0.30(-0.06)*** Head Start plus hrs/wk-0.11(0.04)** Center care 1-20 hrs/wk0.15(0.04)*** Center care 21-40plus hrs/wk0.06(0.05) Pre-kindergarten care 1-10 hrs/wk0.26(0.05)*** Pre-kindergarten care hrs/wk0.19(0.05)*** Pre-kindergarten care hrs/wk0.23(0.04)*** Pre-kindergarten care 40plus hrs/wk0.22(0.04)*** Music lessons0.12(0.06)* Dance classes0.11(0.05)** Use computer to learn to draw0.19(0.05)*** Martial Arts0.26(0.08)** Drama lessons-0.28(0.12)* Art classes0.19(0.06)** Sport0.00(0.03) TV (hrs/wk)-0.01(0.00)* Owns a computer0.14(0.05)** Neighborhood characteristics-0.05(0.03) * p-value <.05 ** p-value <.01 *** p-value <.001 Results & Implications

9 Greater parental involvement predicts better fine motor skills. Early interventions that emphasize parental involvement may be more effective in fostering fine motor skills. Table 2.3 Parent-Child Interaction Variableß (SE) Parent-child interaction0.49(0.26) Parent-child interaction squared-.10(0.05)* Mother depression-0.11(0.03)*** *p-value <.05 ***p-value <.001 Results & Implications

10 Parent readiness expectations predict fine motor skills. Interventions may need inform parents of the skills children should master before entering kindergarten. Table 2.4 Readiness Expectations Variableß (SE) Parent's readiness expectations0.11(0.03)*** K teacher’s readiness expectations0.03(0.03) ***p-value <.001 Results & Implications

11 Conclusions Previous research found that fine motor skills predict academic achievement (Grissmer & Eiseman, 2008; Murrah, 2009). Preliminary findings of early predictors of fine motor skills shows : Future research: Look more at specific activities that may better predict fine motor skills. Develop a randomize control study. 1. Who to target in early childhood interventions 2. What activities are best for interventions 3. The importance of parental involvement

12 References Feldman, R. S. (2008). Development across the lifespan (5 th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Grissmer, D., & Eiseman, E. (2008). Can gaps in the quality of early environments and non-cognitive skills help explain persisting Black-White achievement gaps? In J. Waldfogel & K. Magnuson (eds.), Steady gains and stalled progress: Inequality and the Black-White test score gap ( ). Malina, R. M. (2004). Motor development during infancy and early childhood: Overview and suggested directions for research. International Journal of Sport and Health Sciences, 2, Murrah, W. M. (2009). Which developmental skills predict later math, reading, and science achievement. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Virginia, Charlottesville.

13 Acknowledgements David Grissmer Ph.D. (University of Virginia) Hank Murrah Dan Potter Wei-Bing Chen


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