Presentation on theme: "linking research to real life."— Presentation transcript:
1linking research to real life. SART: Strategy Assessment and Revision Tool A Tool for Evaluating, Revising, or Creating Plans PART TWOIntroductions/Check out audience roles/explain they will leave knowing about a toolCo-DevelopersWendy SzakacsOCALI Regional ConsultantChris FillerOCALI Program DirectorLifespan Transitions CenterA division of the ESC of Central Ohio
2WHY Does A Strategy Work? Strategy Assessment Revision Tool (SART) Strategy to be AssessedPositive ReinforcementWHY Does A Strategy Work? Strategy Assessment Revision Tool (SART)The positive reinforcement factor: Positive reinforcement is an evidence-based practice that can support the teaching of new skills and interventions. Positive reinforcement is always part of building a positive behavior plan, but we want to look at how it can impact each intervention. Changing behavior is a complicated task that requires a “pay off” for the person with complex needs, and positive reinforcement can increase the chances for positive outcomes. Being creative with what a person finds reinforcing can increase the chances of success. So, rather than only seeing positive reinforcement as a response to increase a positive behavior, we can embed it into interventions, academics, activities, and tasks.Build into the strategies/interventionsEffective regardless of cognitive or communicative abilitiesEBP that increases the chance for positive outcomesSimonsen et al, 2008 and Retrieved
3Discrete Trial Training (DTT) Break behavior down into small stepsEach step has a clear beginning, middle, and endTrials are repeated several timesChild rewarded for correct answers/actionsCan be done 1:1, in classrooms, in homes
4Positive Reinforcement in the Workplace Jack stocked shelves for a large department store.Although he was a hard worker, he could be very rude to the other employees and customers.The supervisors implemented a procedure in which Jack was not given any attention for rude behavior.However, when he was considerate to others, the supervisors and workers gave him special attention and tried to make him feel liked and appreciated.This procedure resulted in Jack engaging in much more thoughtful behaviors.Positive Reinforcement in the WorkplaceUsing the student’s special interest as part of the positive reinforcement only increases interest, engagement, and the possibility for more positive outcomes
6WHY Does A Strategy Work? Strategy Assessment Revision Tool (SART) Strategy To Be AssessedIndividualized, MotivatingWHY Does A Strategy Work? Strategy Assessment Revision Tool (SART)Individualized, motivating factor: Similar to what we just discussed, part of positive reinforcement and the teaching of new skills involves the consideration of how to individualize systems and lessons so as much of what we are doing to change challenging behaviors is motivating to the individual. When we are trying to transform deeply ingrained patterns and choices, such as these challenging behaviors, making the positive behavior plan as saturated as possible with topics, items, and passions they love increases the opportunity for positive outcomes. Examining the strategies/interventions educators are using with students to see if they are individualized and motivating will make them more successful.Learning is saturated with topics, items, and passions of the individualMotivation is individualized within the tasks, activities, workBrowder & Cooper-Duffy, 2003and Simpson, 2005
7REMINDER: Make sure communication supports are individualized for the person (style, method, and content)So, if the use of an AAC device is being considered, making sure the language and topics are individualized and motivating can make it more likely for positive outcomes.
8Special Interests Motivate ‘Person is interested in music and touching different textures’Provide access to music while doing chores or at workUse the most familiar and favorite music during the least motivating or favorite activitiesSing steps to task to help a person remember what to doChores to include folding towels and handling other fabricsHave person carry favorite item (tactile item) when making difficult transitionsNew employment? Person not sure of a job? Search out employment that might allow sorting and organizing materials while listening to music in iPod or radio.ELA= English Language Arts
9Choices Are Motivating Pick who will be your partner for an activityDecide when to do the house choresDecide what to wearDecide what to eat and whenOr……..
11Individualized & Motivating: Resources Power Cards: Using Special Interests to Motivate Children and Youth with AS and AutismBy GagnonDifferentiated Instructional Strategies:One Size Doesn’t Fit AllBy Gayle
12WHY Does A Strategy Work? Strategy Assessment Revision Tool (SART) Strategy To Be AssessedTeaches What To DoWHY Does A Strategy Work? Strategy Assessment Revision Tool (SART)Teaches what to do factor: Direct instruction is an evidence-based practice for individuals with complex needs. New interventions or changes in strategies need to have a teaching component. Persons with intricate needs have difficulty just “picking up” on something new; they need to receive repeated instruction, positive feedback, and opportunities to practice the new skills. Some examples of this would include using social narratives to teach social competence, teaching how to use a speech device to communicate, or demonstrating how to use a visual support that shows a deep breathing sequence to reduce anxiety. These all teach what to do and can help support changing a challenging behavior.Direct, repetitive instruction of new skills that are part of strategiesOpportunities to practice new skillsBremer & Morocco, 2003, Flores & Ganz, 2007 and Browder & Cooper-Duffy, 2003
14Teach Expectations with Video Modeling Integrate video clips of “modeled behavior”Allows person to see and ‘study’ desired behaviorStudies promisingAnother strategy may be video modeling. This may be a great way for the child to see the appropriate behavior and expectation of the classroom. Consider videoing a child exhibiting proper behavior in your class and then allow a student that is struggling to view the video and to see what the expectations are. This works great for the child that enjoys watching videos. Using videos from the internet such as YouTube or commercial products can also be beneficial. You can also make your own videos using a flip video camera or a cell phone.How?Cell Phone VideoTablet CameraYouTube
15Shower and Wash Hair Showers are Good for You Showers make You Clean Wash Body and HairFriends Like You to Smell Clean
16Options for Alternatives for Challenging Behaviors Instead of This…..Try This……Screaming for AttentionTap person’s armGrabbing everyone’s drinkUse sign language to ask for help getting a drinkHitting to tell someone ‘no’Use words, sign language, gesture or picture to tell someone ‘no’ (and teach others to respect the message!)Hitting head with own fist to relieve anxiety, stress, frustrationUse stress reducing alternatives such as deep breathing, deep pressure, heavy blankets, taking long walks….Refusing to do a job/chore/taskTeach the person how to do the job (maybe reduce the difficulty too….)Throwing items to escape from the work or taskUse sign language, a visual symbol, gesture, picture, etc. to ask for a break
17Anxiety SupportThis slide shows an example of a visual support for anxiety. This visual support uses pictures and text in order to help the child relax. Each step of this sequence would need to be taught, practiced, and reinforced for it to become a habit an individual can remember in a time of anxiety.
18Self-Monitoring Teach person how to track their own behavior/work Develop system for tracking and teach to the studentRemember to reinforce progress
19(Myles, et al., 2004, Endow, Mayfield, Myles, 2013) The Hidden Curriculum“The set of rules or guidelines that are often not directly taught but are assumed to be known.”Phrases associated with hidden curriculum:“I shouldn’t have to tell you but …”“Everyone knows that …”“It’s obvious …”Teach the Hidden Curriculum by reviewing the situations in the book, on the calendars, or that occur in everyday life.The hidden curriculum teaches what to do and what is expected in social situations(Myles, et al., 2004, Endow, Mayfield, Myles, 2013)
20Teaches What To Do Resources Enhancing Everyday Communication for Children with DisabilitiesSigafoos, et alSocial Thinking Across the Home and School DayWinner