Average Adult Chimpanzee Specifications Swahili Name: Sokwe Mtu Scientific Name: Pan troglodytes Size: 3 to 41/2 feet tall standing bipedal Weight: 55 to 110 pounds Lifespan: 50 years
Skull Shape Larger brow ridge (supraorbital torus) of chimp compared to human Sloping forehead of chimp compared to human More prognathous (jutting) jaw of chimp compared to human Larger canine and gap (diastema) of chimp compared to human
Brain Structure Chimp’s brain is much smaller (400cc vs. 1400cc) It has reduced frontal lobe It has no Broca’s or Wernicke’s area It does have Brodmann’s area 10, where calls may originate—but no speech It does have planum temporale, where calls are received—but not processed as language
Walk Homo sapiens is the only mammal capable of bipedalism, or the ability to stand and walk entirely on two feet. Chimpanzees can walk on two feet, but not very efficiently; they are closer to quadrupedalism, or the ability to move around on four feet.
Posture Human vertebral column is S-shaped, supporting the upper torso Chimp vertebral column is bow-shaped Human pelvis, with ilium, is bowl-shaped; muscles from the thigh keep him upright Chimp pelvis is long, with flat ilium
Sexual Activity Age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female) 10 to 13 years Age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male) 12 to 15 years Chimpanzees are polygynandrous (a type of polygamy in which a female mates with several males, each of which also mates with several different females), and do not have a breeding season. A female can come into estrus at any time of year. Estrus generally lasts for 36 days, and during that period her genitals swell and change in shape and color—this swelling is referred to as “tumescence.” A female generally gives birth to one offspring, and sometimes two, following a 230-day gestation period. In the wild, a female may first give birth at 15 years old. In captivity females may give birth as early as 11 years old. Once a female becomes pregnant, even if she does not ultimately deliver an infant, she may not cycle for another 2.5 - 5.5 years.
Chimpanzee Habitat The greatest concentration of chimpanzee populations is present in the rain forest areas on what used to be known as the equatorial forest ‘belt’ - stretching across Central Africa. They live in hot and humid climates. They are usually found in dense tropical rainforests but can also be found in woodlands, bamboo forests, swamps, and open savannah. They do most of their eating and sleeping in trees.