Presentation on theme: "Brain Span =‘s Life Span James Siberski MS,CMC Assistant Professor Misericordia University"— Presentation transcript:
Brain Span =‘s Life Span James Siberski MS,CMC Assistant Professor Misericordia University firstname.lastname@example.org
Defining the problem! Can we handle the BOOMER’S
Boomers + today's cohort of older people =‘s $$$$$$$$$ A hypothetical intervention that delayed the onset of AD dementia by 5 years would result in a 57% reduction in the number of patients with AD dementia, and reduce the projected Medicare costs of AD from $627 to $344 billion dollars Everyone - religious organizations, big business, Government, ……… to have a prayer of meeting the needs
Roger Bacon (c. 1220-1292) Franciscan friar English philosopher Oxford professor Old age could be thwarted off by: eating a controlled diet proper rest exercise moderation in lifestyle good hygiene inhaling the breath of a young virgin (Kind David…sleeping between 2 virgins) Aging healthy it has not changed that much?
Memory Memory is the basis for knowing your friends, your neighbors, the English language, the national anthem, and yourself. If memory was nonexistent, everyone would be a stranger to you; every language foreign; every task new; and even you yourself would be a stranger. 7
The Phenomenon of Memory Memory is any indication that learning has persisted over time. It is our ability to store and retrieve information. BRAIN HEALTH IS IMPROTANT BRAIN SPAN NEEDS TO = LIFE SPAN NOT MATTER 8
Reserve Function Age 40 Basal Capacity Reserve Function Age 80 Basal Capacity Reserve Function Excess Capacity (Developed)
Memory Health How healthy your memory is depends quite a bit on how healthy you are. We all notice fluctuations in our ability to remember from time to time. Your memory might seem less efficient when you are very sick, emotionally stressed or excessively busy. Take the time to run through this memory health check: Are you taking any medication, and if so, do you know if it can affect your memory? Is your vision or hearing impaired in any way? Do you have chronic pain? Is your sleep disturbed? Are you experiencing a high level of stress or anxiety? Could your hormone levels be altered at the moment? Do you think you might be depressed? Is your workload to heavy? Do you drink too much alcohol, or use drugs to excess? If you are worried about your memory and you answered yes to any of these questions, it might be time to take action.
Brain Myth #1: You can't change your brain. Your brain is constantly changing in response to your experiences, and it retains this basic "plasticity" well into old age. Everything we do and think about is reflected in patterns of activity in our brains. Scientists can see these patterns in brain-imaging scans that show which parts of the brain are functioning during specific tasks. Changing our thinking or changing the way we behave causes corresponding changes in the brain systems involved. This is why therapy that teaches people to alter negative patterns of thought and behavior (like cognitive therapy, for example) can be effective in treating some mental disorders.
Brain Myth #2: People lose brain cells every day and eventually just run out. Actually, most regions of the brain do not lose brain cells as you age. While you may lose some nerve connections, this is not necessarily a bad thing. It can be part of the reshaping of the brain that occurs with experience. It's also possible that you can even grow new brain cells and create new connections, or prevent the ones you have from withering, if you exercise your brain
Brain Myth #3: The brain doesn't make new brain cells. This myth was widely believed for generations, but has recently been proven false. We now know that certain areas in the brain— including the hippocampus (where new memories are created) and the olfactory bulb (the scent- processing center)—regularly generate new brain cells. Many of these cells go on to become working parts in brain-cell connections.
Brain Myth #4: Memory decline is inevitable as we age Many people reach very old age and are still sharp as ever. Genetics clearly plays a role in "successful aging," but how we live our lives on a day-to-day basis is also critical. To help your brain age well, you can: Perform physical exercise (especially aerobic exercise) Engage in intellectually stimulating mental activity Eat a healthy diet Maintain social connections (spending time with friends and family members, for example) Learn to manage stress Develop a positive attitude toward yourself and your world
Ginkgo biloba Ginkgo biloba is the oldest species of tree known, dating back 300 million years. In Europe physicians write over 1.2 million prescriptions per month for ginkgo to help improve cerebral circulation, mental alertness, and overall brain functioning. Numerous human studies on ginkgo have been published, which show that ginkgo leaf works by increasing blood flow throughout the body and brain. It has been shown to be helpful with many of the complaints of the elderly such as short-term memory loss, slow thinking and reasoning, and dizziness.
Fish oil/DHA/EPA The omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA are the preferred brain fats. Essentially the only place you can obtain these fatty acids is by eating fish and other seafood. The saying, “Fish is brain food” is correct: if you don’t eat fish and consume other less desirable fats such as the trans-fats found in margarine or heated rancid fats such as are typically found when food is deep fried, your brain incorporates these fatty acids into its infrastructure(!)
L-glutamine L-glutamine is an amino acid that serves as an important source of energy for the brain. Supplementation with l-glutamine has been found to help improve mood, mental performance and both long- and short-term memory.
What can be done to improve, maintain our memory ?
Compared with the brain of an individual with no history of inhalant abuse (A), that of a chronic toluene abuser (B) is smaller and fills less of the space inside the skull (the white outer circle in each image).
Why am I optimistic? The defective, right side of three-year-old brain which was removed during surgery for Rasmussen's encephalitis, a condition that causes seizures every few minutes. The right side of brain typically controls the muscles on the left side of the body and is more dominant for processing music and visual imagery
The 3 key principles for good brain exercise We need to know and teach: Novelty: you need to try new things, including things you aren’t good at. Variety: given that the brain is composed of a variety of functionally distinct areas, you need to ensure a complete mental “workout circuit” to maintain sharpness in all areas. Excessive specialization is not the best strategy for our long- term Brain Health. Challenge: you need to be exposed to increasing levels of challenge, so the task is never too easy. If you can only do one thing, learn something new every day, no matter how small.
Neuroplasticity The hope of many scientists researching neuroplasticity is that humans will be able to combat things such as ID, addiction, dyslexia, and more by harnessing the brain's inborn ability to change. One way to harness the power of neuroplasticity is through the use of Brain-computer interfaces
Brain Plasticity Brain reacts and adapts in response to challenge. Recent brain imaging technologies show as we receive input through our senses with frequency, intensity and duration, the brain physically changes its structure. New connections and neurons sprout. Once structure changes, function can change.
TECHNOLOGY YOU HAVE TO GO TO DOCTOR YOU HAVE TO HAVE ASSESSMENT YOU HAVE TO ALTER LIFE STYLE YOU HAVE TO PLAN YOU HAVE TO POSTPONE YOU HAVE ……………..
AD – DISEASE & AD - DEMENTIA Converging evidence from both genetic at-risk cohorts and clinically normal older individuals suggests that the pathophysiological process of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) begins years, if not decades, before the diagnosis of clinical dementia The long preclinical phase of AD provides a critical opportunity for potential intervention with disease-modifying therapy A recent report on the economic implications of the impending epidemic of AD, as the “baby boomer” generation ages, suggests that more than 13.5 million individuals just in the United States will manifest AD dementia by the year 2050 A hypothetical intervention that delayed the onset of AD dementia by 5 years would result in a 57% reduction in the number of patients with AD dementia, and reduce the projected Medicare costs of AD from $627 to $344 billion dollars AD would be optimally treated before significant cognitive impairment, in the “presymptomatic” or “preclinical” stages of AD
This model postulates that amyloid beta (Aβ) accumulation is an “upstream” event in the cascade that is associated with “downstream” synaptic dysfunction, neurodegeneration, and eventual neuronal loss
Gammagard "If we have a patient who goes out to 18 or 24 months without changing, then we usually begin to doubt that they have Alzheimer's...but to have 4 patients, all of whom received the same dose and who are effectively unchanged after 3 years, is a remarkable
It is given once every two weeks, with an estimated to cost a patient $2,000 to $5,000. Immunotherapy with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG/Gammagard, Baxter) appears to stabilize symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD) over the long term At 36 months, IVIG slowed the rate of expected cognitive decline in all participants. But the most striking finding was that it stopped decline in a subset of patients who received what proved to be the optimal dose of the immunotherapy for the entire study period. For this subset of 4 patients, measures of cognition, memory, daily functioning, and mood were unchanged from baseline after 3 years of treatment. To put this in perspective, when we see patients in our clinic with AD who are untreated, there's usually measurable decline below baseline in 3 to 6 months. If we treat them with the currently available agents, they typically drop below baseline between 6 and 12 months.
Souvenaid, Nutricia/Danone) Medical nutrition product (Souvenaid, Nutricia/Danone) showed that memory performance continued to improve in drug-naïve patients with mild AD for up to 48 weeks. These latest OLE results immediately follow those of the double-blind, randomized controlled Souvenir II study, published in the July issue of the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, which showed significant improvement in memory performance compared with placebo over 24 weeksstudy The bottom line is that we have now conducted 2 large studies with this medical food that aims to restore the function of synapses in mild to very mild Alzheimer's disease and have proven that it improves memory
Axona The bottom line is that we have now conducted 2 large studies with this medical food that aims to restore the function of synapses in mild to very mild Alzheimer's disease and have proven that it improves memory Both coconut oil and Axona are high in calories and saturated fat, but some research suggests that coconut oil neither increases weight nor adversely affects lipid levels. [2,16,17] Gastrointestinal adverse effects, particularly diarrhea, were frequent causes of discontinuation in the phase 2 study.  Coconut oil costs about $12 for 16 oz. Axona costs about $85 per month.
Waitlist Inhibition Planning Eye-hand Divided att Visual perc Time est Shifting Visual scan Awareness Wk Memory Response ST Memory Spatial Naming Placebo Inhibition Planning Eye-hand Divided att Visual perc Time est Shifting Visual scan Awareness Wk Memory Response ST Memory Spatial Naming Experimental Inhibition Planning Eye-hand Divided att Visual perc Time est Shifting Visual scan Awareness Wk Memory Response ST Memory Spatial Naming #5 SO ID INDIVIDUALS CAN LEARN!
A pumped-up blood flow Variety and Challenge Good Nutrition What the aging brain needs: aging brainaging brain
If you are 45 years old and do all of these (rather than none) you will live longer. (men- 7 years, women-11 years) 1.Sleeping 7-8 hours per night 2.Weight Control 3.Exercise 4.Limited Alcohol 5.Non-smoking 6.Eating Breakfast 7.Seldom Snacking Lifestyle Choices for Lifestyle Recommendations Health Belloc et al
Nutrition or - A Waist is a Terrible Thing to Mind
Foods for Health 1. Tea, green1-6 cups 2.Coffee? 3. Fish2-3 times/week 4.Cooked Tomatoes10 servings/week 5. Fiber> 25 gm/day 6. Nuts> 5 oz/week 7. Chocolatedark 8.Saturated fat< 10% total calories/day < 1/3 of all fat intake 9.Fruit > 4 Servings/day 10.Alcohol1.5 oz/day- women 3 oz/day-men Dietary Reference Intakes The National Academies Press, 2005 Minaker et al Lifestyle Recommendations
Drug Side Effects Include Memory Loss Drugs That May Interfere in Thinking and Memory: Antiarrhythmics: Digoxin (Lanoxin), disepyramide (Norpace) Antibiotics and antivirals: Acyclovir (Zovirax), ciprofloxacin (Cipro), ganciclovir (Cytovene), metronidazole (Flagyl) Antihistamines: Chlorpheniramine (ChlorTrimeton), dimenhydrinate (Dramamine), diphenhydramine (Benadryl Allergy) Antihypertensives: Clonidine (Catapres) and beta blockers, such as atenolol (Tenormin), metoprolol (Lopressor), and propranolol (Inderal) Corticosteroids: Methylprednisolone (Medrol, Meprolone), prednisone (Deltasone, Orasone) Cough and congestion medications: Dextromethorphan (Robitussin Cough Gels), pseudoephedrine (Sudafed) Incontinence medications: Oxybutynin (Ditropan), solifenacin (VESlcare), tolterodine (Detrol)
Drug Side Effects Include Memory Loss Drugs That May Interfere in Thinking and Memory: Gastrointestinal medications: Cimetidine (Tagamet), diphenoxylate (combined with atropine in Lofene, Lomotil), dicyclomine (Bentyl), glycopyrrolate (Robinul), hyoscyamine (Anaspaz, Cystospaz), scopolamine (Scopace) Migraine medications: Naratriptan (Amerge), rizatriptan (Maxalt) Muscle relaxants: Cyclobenzaprine (Flexeril), orphenadrine (Antiflex) Painkillers: Codeine (generic); meperidine (Demerol), pentazocine (Talwin), propoxyphene (Darvon) Parkinson’s medications: Amantadine (Symmetrel), levodopa (Sinemet), selegiline (Eldepryl) Sleep medications: Eszopiclone (Lunesta), zaleplon (Sonata), zolpidem (Ambien CR) Tricyclic antidepressants: Amitriptyline (Elavil), imipramine (Tofranil), notriptyline (Pamelor)
Any intellectually challenging activity stimulates dendritic growth, which adds to the neural connections in the brain. The more mentally challenged sisters had more neural connections, which allows them to reroute messages to the brain. Counteracting the debilitating effects on the brain of dementia and Alzheimer’s.
If you want your brain span to equal your life span? Conclusions! At any age: – Enrich your environment - travel, games, dancing – Eat right - Med diet, H2O, supplements – Exercise - mind, memory and body – Education - learning new things everyday – Entertain - socializing – Evaluate - health, practice wellness, drugs you take – Estimate - quality of sleep – Examination - by MD and Dx. Memory issues – Expend – the effort to have memory span = life span