Presentation on theme: "Gallery Walk Take your graphic notes and pen/pencil with you. Fill out the “Approaches to Psychology” section of your graphic notes. You will have to summarize."— Presentation transcript:
Gallery Walk Take your graphic notes and pen/pencil with you. Fill out the “Approaches to Psychology” section of your graphic notes. You will have to summarize. If you see any underlined words, you must define them on the “additional notes on previous page” section. Feel free to write any questions/vocabulary that you encounter.
BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY Biopsychology is an interdisciplinary approach linking the perspectives and techniques of biology and psychology to understand interactions between mind/body, environment, and behavior. Biopsychology is a rapidly expanding discipline with exciting advances in areas such as psychoneuroimmunology (the exploration of brain, behavior, and immune function) and behavioral genetics (the exploration of genetic and environmental effects on behavior, personality, and mood). Famous psychologist(s): John Pinel.
BEHAVIORAL PSYCHOLOGY Behaviorism is primarily concerned with observable behavior, as opposed to internal events like thinking and emotion. Observable (i.e. external) behavior can be objectively and scientifically measured. Internal events, such as thinking should be explained through behavioral terms (or eliminated altogether). All behavior is learnt from the environment. We learn new behavior through classical or operant conditioning. Behavior is the result of stimulus – response (i.e. all behavior, no matter how complex, can be reduced to a simple stimulus – response association). Famous psychologist(s): John Watson, B.F. Skinner.
PSYCHOANALYTIC PSYCHOLOGY Psychoanalysis is both a theory of how the mind works and a treatment. It is based on the belief in the primacy of the unconscious fantasy, sexual desires (libido, penis envy, Oedipal complex), and dreams. It also examines such basic mental maneuvers as transference, projection, and defensiveness—and demonstrated how they distort our functioning. All of this is processed at the unconscious level and usually without the awareness of the individual. The psychoanalytic treatment method includes extended self- exploration with a trained therapist. Famous psychologist(s): Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung.
EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY Educational psychology involves the study of how people learn, including topics such as student outcomes, the instructional process, individual differences in learning, gifted learners and learning disabilities. This branch of psychology involves not just the learning process of early childhood and adolescence, but includes the social, emotional and cognitive processes that are involved in learning throughout the entire lifespan. The field of educational psychology incorporates a number of other disciplines, including developmental psychology, behavioral psychology and cognitive psychology. Famous psychologist(s): Alfred Binet, John Dewey.
DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY Developmental psychologists study the human growth and development that occurs throughout the entire lifespan. This includes not only physical development, but also cognitive, social, intellectual, perceptual, personality and emotional growth. Some of the tasks that a developmental psychologist might do include: Evaluating children to determine if they have a developmental disability. Investigating how language skills are acquired. Studying how moral reasoning develops in children. Exploring ways to help elderly individuals remain independent. Famous psychologist(s): Lawrence Kohlberg, James Mark Baldwin.
SOCIOCULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY The work of sociocultural theory is to explain how individual mental functioning is related to cultural, institutional, and historical context; hence, the focus of the sociocultural perspective is on the roles that participation in social interactions and culturally organized activities play in influencing psychological development. Sociocultural theory is a emerging theory in psychology that looks at the important contributions that society makes to individual development. This theory stresses the interaction between developing people and the culture in which they live. Famous psychologist(s): Lev Vygotsky, Philip Zimbardo.
COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY Cognitive Psychology revolves around the notion that if we want to know what makes people tick then we need to understand the internal processes of their mind. Cognitive psychology focuses on the way humans process information, looking at how we treat information that comes in to the person (what behaviorists would call stimuli), and how this treatment leads to responses. In other words, they are interested in the variables that mediate between stimulus/input and response/output. Cognitive psychologists study internal processes including perception, attention, language, memory and thinking. Famous psychologist(s): Jean Piaget, Ulric Neisser.
INDUSTRIAL/ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY Industrial organizational psychology is the branch of psychology that applies psychological theories and principles to organizations. Often referred to as I-O psychology, this field focuses on increasing workplace productivity and related issues such as the physical and mental well-being of employees. Industrial organizational psychologists perform a wide variety of tasks, including studying worker attitudes and behavior, evaluating companies, and conducting leadership training. The overall goal of this field is to study and understand human behavior in the workplace. Famous psychologist(s): Elton Mayo, Robert Yerkes.
EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY The goal of research in evolutionary psychology is to discover and understand the design of the human mind. Evolutionary psychology is an approach to psychology, in which knowledge and principles from evolutionary biology are put to use in research on the structure of the human mind. In this view, the mind is a set of information- processing machines that were designed by natural selection to solve adaptive problems faced by our hunter- gatherer ancestors. This way of thinking about the brain, mind, and behavior is changing how scientists approach old topics, and opening up new ones. Famous psychologist(s): Leda Cosmides, John Tooby.
HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGY Humanism is a psychological approach that emphasizes the study of the whole person. Humanistic psychologists look at human behavior not only through the eyes of the observer, but through the eyes of the person doing the behaving. Humanistic psychologists believe that an individual's behavior is connected to their inner feelings and self-concept. Humanists rejected behaviorism, which was considered deterministic with too much emphasis given to stimulus-response patterns. They also rejected psychoanalysis because it is also deterministic, with unconscious irrational and instinctive forces determining human thought and behavior. Famous psychologist(s): Carl Rogers, Abraham Maslow.
EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY Experimental psychology is an area of psychology that utilizes scientific methods to research the mind and behavior. While students are often required to take experimental psychology courses during undergraduate and graduate school, you should really think of this subject as a methodology rather than a singular area within psychology. Many of these techniques are also used by other subfields of psychology to conduct research on everything from childhood development to social issues. Famous psychologist(s): Edwin Boring.
PSYCHOMETRICS The branch of psychology that deals with the design, administration, and interpretation of quantitative tests for the measurement of psychological variables such as intelligence, aptitude, and personality traits. Famous psychologist(s): Francis Galton.
PERSONALITY PSYCHOLOGY Personality refers to individual differences in characteristic patterns of thinking, feeling and behaving. The study of personality focuses on two broad areas: One is understanding individual differences in particular personality characteristics, such as sociability or irritability. The other is understanding how the various parts of a person come together as a whole. Famous psychologist(s): Gordon Allport, Raymond Cattell.