Presentation on theme: "Professor of Psychology"— Presentation transcript:
1 Professor of Psychology Mind of a TerroristDr. Stephen LinkProfessor of PsychologyBrookhaven College
2 Social SciencesRefers to the academic disciplines concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society.Anthropology Political ScienceGeography PsychologyHistory ReligionPhilosophy Sociology
3 PSYCHOLOGY COURSES PSYC 2301 General Psychology Survey of major topics in psychology. Introduces the study of behavior and the factors that determine and affect behavior.PSYC 2302 Applied PsychologySurvey of the applications of psychological knowledge and methods in such fields as business, industry, education, medicine, law enforcement, social work, and government work.PSYC 2306 Human SexualityStudy of the psychological, sociological, and physiological aspects of human sexuality.PSYC 2314 Lifespan Growth & DevelopmentStudy of the relationship of the physical, emotional, social and mental factors of growth and development of children and throughout the lifespan.PSYC 2315 Psychology of AdjustmentStudy of the processes involved in adjustment of individuals to their personal and social environments.PSYC 2316 Psychology of PersonalityStudy of various approaches to determinants, development, and assessment of personality.
4 Lecture Objectives Define Terrorism Discuss the Importance of Changing PerceptionDescribe the Process of Terrorist Mind Development
5 Questions for You How can someone be persuaded to kill others? Can this perceptual persuasion happen to me or some one close to me?Does the process of perceptual conversion happen in other groups?What policies could be developed to deter the development of terrorists?
6 Terrorism FBI Definition There is no single, universally accepted, definition of terrorism. Terrorism is defined in the Code of Federal Regulations as “the unlawful use of force and violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives” (28 C.F.R. Section 0.85).
7 Can someone be persuaded to kill others? Strongly AgreeAgreeNeutralDisagreeStrongly Disagree0 of 132
8 It is all about PERCEPTION How do we know what is true and real?
16 Social Cognition What is Real/True? SuicideMartyrdomFeel hopelessness and depression.End intense and unbearable pain.Others consider suicide undesirable.Others attempt to discourage behavior and feel guilt and shame if it occurs.Feel hopefulness about afterlife.Further the cause …a heroic sacrifice.Others consider the act as heroic.Others encourage the behavior for family pride and give social and financial support.
17 You can drastically change some one’s perception. Strongly AgreeAgreeNeutralDisagreeStrongly Disagree0 of 132
18 How can a person change their perception so drastically?
27 Process of Terrorist Mind Development Perceived Unfairness Perceived Options to Fight Unfair Treatment Seeking Others Recruitment/Perceptual Persuasion Conversion/Commitment to the Organization Mission of Martyrdom
28 Perceived UnfairnessPoverty and lack of education are problematic but not predicative.Perceived injustice and the feeling of frustration and shame.Perceived personal deprivation.Fraternal deprivation other societies have reached this goal we have not.
29 Frustration Syriana Clip 1 Pakistani migrant workers Saleem Ahmed Khan and his son Wasim board a bus to go to work at a Connex refinery, only to discover that they have been laid off due to a Chinese company outbidding Connex for the rights to run the facility. Since the company has provided food and lodging, the workers face the threat of poverty and deportation due to their unemployed status. Wasim desperately searches for work but is refused because he doesn't speak Arabic.
31 Key Elements to Fight Unfair Treatment Plato warned of the inevitable collapse of any society if it does not allow the rise of talented individuals in the social hierarchy and conversely the downward mobility of the less talented who are born to those in power.Equity principal important I can get ahead and efforts will be rewarded.No options ! Emotions build.
32 Do you feel that you have an opportunity to change your life? Strongly AgreeAgreeNeutralDisagreeStrongly Disagree0 of 132
33 Emotional Reaction Key Element Decreases/Overrides whichDecreases/OverridesLogic/Critical ThinkingEasier to Manipulate/Persuade
34 Seeking Others In times of Distress we Affiliate Solace and comfort in knowing that I am not alone. Same values and views. You are one of us.Psychological/emotional connections are met.Great empathy and sympathy given.Blame injustice on targeted group.Can be done in person or via the internet.Make an emotional connection with a soon to be mentor/group.
35 Perceived UnfairnessFairness matters the most. I cannot achieve what the media presents of affluent and democratic lifestyles.
36 Reactions to Perceived Unfair Treatment Lack of EmpowermentFeelings of HelplessnessFeelings of HopelessnessAngerBlame Others
37 Syriana Seeking Others clip 2 A very frustrated Wasim and his friends join an Islamic school for food and learn Arabic, in order to improve their employment prospects.
39 Recruitment Perceptual Persuasion Groups offer answers by supplying continual righteous information.Development of US vs. Them Attitude. LabelingPersuaded to be committed to the morality of the group.Develop a parallel life… keep this a secret.Isolation, affiliation, secrecy and fear.Feel powerful hope and have a sense of purpose.Powerful Charismatic Figure Appears.
40 Mentor Syriana clip 3While playing soccer, they meet a charismatic Islamic fundamentalist cleric
45 Commitment to the Organization Perceptual Conversion Usually end parallel life. “Live” the organization to be trained. All information is tightly controlled. Constant bombardment of 24 hours of social categorization.Terrorists act in a prosocial manner, both believing themselves to be serving society and judged by their in-group to be acting in its interest.Groups use Social Conformity , Social Obedience and Confirmation Basis
46 Social ConformitySocial Conformity is a type of social influence involving a change in belief or behavior in order to fit in with a group.This change is in response to real (involving the physical presence of others) or imagined (involving the pressure of social norms / expectations) group pressure.
47 Social ObedienceObedience is a form of social influence where an individual acts in response to a direct order from another individual. This person is perceived as an authority figure.Enthusiastically identify with the groups leader or agenda.
48 Confirmation Biasis a tendency for people to favor information that confirms their preconceptions. The label becomes truth regardless of reality.
50 Commitment to the Organization Reduction of Inhibitory Mechanisms.Social Categorization: Those people. Civilians acts of violence are justified because they are the enemy.Development of emotional anchors – hypnotic suggestions. Drugs?No opportunity to leave alive.Strong Emotional Reactions Hopefulness/Angry Leads to
52 is a feeling or way of life that is all about doing the right thing. Righteousnessis a feeling or way of life that is all about doing the right thing.Distorted Perception
53 Does the process of terrorist (perceptual) conversion happen in other groups?
54 Does the process of perceptual conversion happen in other groups? CultsMilitarySocial GroupsSportsOrganized ReligionPoliticsAbusive RelationshipDysfunctional FamiliesAll of the aboveOther0 of 132
55 Factors Leading to Action Modern weaponry decreases personal contact.Psychological distancing using terrorist myths do not provide a spark to get people to recognize their actions.Victims are not aware of attack and cannot induce inhibitory mechanism.Contact person reinforces perception. Use anchors such as icons, visualizations, emotional feelings.
60 The Process of Ideological Development It’s Not RightIt’s Not FairIt’s Your FaultYou’re EvilBorum, David. (2003) Understanding the Terrorist Mind-Set. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, July 2003, 7-10.Let’s Get THEM
62 What can be done to deter the development of terrorists?
63 Short Term Policy Implications Defensive - Increased SecurityOffensive - Military and Cyber attacks.Use of Social Media and Global Media to Change PerceptionInternational Aid ProgramSupport Democratic Processes - Equality
64 Long Term Policy Implications Reduction of InequalityEqual ParticipationAwareness Education of Us- Them MentalityJustice PromotedInterobjectivityunderstanding shared within andbetween cultures
65 Salient Elements to Eliminate Perceptual Persuasion Be EducatedStay AwareEmote and Release Emotional EnergyMaintain HopeMotivate YourselfThink Critically
66 ReferencesAtran, S. (2003, March 7). Genesis of suicide terrorism. Science, 299, 1534–1539.Bandura, A. (2004). The role of selective moral disengagement in terrorism and counterterrorism. In F. M. Moghaddam & A. J. Marsella (Eds.), Understanding terrorism: Psychosocial roots, causes, and consequences (pp. 121–150). Washington DC: American Psychological Association.
67 ReferencesBorum, David. (2003) Understanding the Terrorist Mind-Set. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, July 2003, 7-10.Moghaddam, F. M. (2005). The Staircase to Terrorism. A Psychological Exploration American Psychologist, Vol. 60, No. 2, 161–169.
68 Stephen Link Ph.D. firstname.lastname@example.org QuestionsStephen Link Ph.D.
69 Brief History of Terrorism in the United States —The Unabomber1993—The First World Trade Center Bombing1995—Oklahoma City Bombing1996— Centennial Olympic Park Bombing2001—9/112001—The Shoe Bomber2001—Anthrax Attacks2002—The Beltway Sniper2006—SUV Attack at University of North Carolina Chapel Hill2009—NYC Subway Bomb Plot2009—Fort Hood Shooting2009—Little Rock Recruiting Office Shooting2009—Underwear Bombing Attempt2010—Times Square Bombing Attempt2013—Boston Marathon
70 Research Findings on Elements of Terrorist Wants change of some kind but feel powerless to have effect or impact.Feel alienated, disenfranchised or angry.Feel a need to take action when talking becomes ineffective or no one listens.Believe that their efforts are not immoral.Has family or friends sympathetic to a shared cause.Feels that joining a movement or acting alone empowers them bringing psychological rewards, adventure, a heightened sense of identity and perhaps camaraderie.Some actually believe a violent act may attract positive attention to their cause.Lone wolves and large groups both feel a need to strike out if they perceive their lifestyle or culture is in jeopardy.Revenge is a popular criterion for terrorist violence.In almost all cases, lone wolves are male.Lone wolves are known to be lonely people who want to be heard.Read more:
71 History of TerrorismThe history of terrorism dates back at least 1500 years when Jewish resistance groups ( A.D.) known as Zealots killed Roman soldiers and destroyed Roman property. The term assassin comes from a Shi'ite Muslim sect (Nizari Isma'ilis - also known as hashashins "hashish-eaters") fighting Sunni Muslims ( ) and during Medieval Christendom resisting occupation during the Crusades ( ). The hashashins were known to spread terror in the form of murder, including women and children. The brotherhood of Assassins committed terror so as to gain paradise and seventy-two virgins if killed and to receive unlimited hashish while on earth. The modern development of terrorism began during the French Revolution's Reign of Terror ( ). During this period the term terrorism was first coined.
72 1920: Wall Street Bombing 30 people died , hundreds injured, destroyed Morgan Building
73 During a series of protests linked to the Sons of Liberty, colonists burn and sack the house of the Massachusetts lieutenant governor, Thomas Hutchinson.
75 Title 22 of the U.S. Code, Section 2656f(d) defines terrorism as “premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets by subnational groups or clandestine agents, usually intended to influence an audience.”