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Q11: Examine psychological research into adolescence.

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Presentation on theme: "Q11: Examine psychological research into adolescence."— Presentation transcript:

1 Q11: Examine psychological research into adolescence.

2  Introduction  Research into adolescent identity  Thesis:  Body  Erickson  Marcia  Rutter  Conclusion

3  Life as stages of development- adolescence as one aspect  Adolescence as a time of identity crisis  Identity vs role confusion  Challenges  Intimacy- fear commitment since it may contribute to a loss of identity  Time diffusion-disbelieve time will bring change while at the same time fear that it might  Diffusion of Industry-inability to concentrate or great concentration in a single area  Negative identity- scorn for role offered by family or society  Psychosocial moratorium- suspension of activity during identity formation to ‘find oneself’ to resolve identity crisis

4  Did not conduct empirical research to support his ideas  Theory based on non-rigorous observations of adolescence in therapy in the 40s and 50s (biased sample and questionable generalization)  Contradictions of Erikson’s view of adolescence as time of constant negative turmoil  Time of positive identity formation (Marsh, 1989)  Most American teenagers are confident, happy and satisfied (Offer, 1981)  Some ideas outdated- reflect 1950s America  Female identity tied to type of man she marries  Lifestyles different today

5  Expanded on Erikson’s ideas and tried to test empirically  Focus on crisis and commitment  Crisis- re-evaluation of previous choices and values  After crisis- commitment to new set of values and ideology  Used semi-structured interviews as a research method

6  Statuses are not stages, but depend on the amount of choices and commitments made  Identity diffusion- no sense of choice and not yet made a commitment  Identity foreclosure- willingness to commit to roles and values for the future; tend to conform to expectations of others  Identity moratorium- examining choices, not yet made a commitment  Identity achievement- gone through identity crisis and made a commitment to identity (roles and values)

7  Strengths  Meilman (1979)- identity achievers rose after 15 years old  Mundane realism- evident in daily life that teenagers try out various identities  Limitations  Limited sample- while, middle-class Americans during the 1960s and 70s  Cohort effects- Waterman & Waterman (1979) ▪ Findings linked to a particular age and culture  Oversimplification ▪ Archer (1982)- added complexity- different stages of identity formation in different areas  Cultural Relativity ▪ Condon (1988)-Studied the Inuit in the Canadian arctic who didn’t have time for identity formation and progressed to adulthood much earlier than American, middle-class sample

8  Rutter (1976)-studied adolescents on the Isle of Wight (self-report) and found that only a minority showed signs of crisis or conlict  O’Connel (1976)-interviews with married women suggested that identity develops over the lifespan  Condon (1987)- studied Inuit of Canada and found they did not spend time questioning their identity (early adulthood)  Lenroot (2007)- brain development differs between genders (MRI scans- women reach full brain development maturity by 21; men at 30)


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