Presentation on theme: "Child and Lifespan Development"— Presentation transcript:
1 Child and Lifespan Development Chapter 18: Safety and Health
2 “Feed a Cold, Starve a Fever” JournalRead the old saying. Write a paragraph about what you think it may mean.“Feed a Cold, Starve a Fever”
3 State StandardsStandard 4.4: Analyze necessary components of a healthy , safe, and stimulating environment during the infant and toddler stages.Standard 5.4: Analyze necessary components of a healthy , safe, and stimulating environment during preschool years.Standard 6.4: Analyze necessary components of a healthy , safe, and stimulating environment during middle childhood.Standard 7.4: Analyze necessary components of a healthy , safe, and stimulating environment during adolescence.
4 Definition CarouselAround the room find white boards with one word on each.Travel around the room and add a comment about the word. It may be a definition or an example.Only one group at each board at a time!Words for white boards: allergy, antibodies, asthma, communicable disease, contagious, immunize, vaccine, artificial respiration, convulsion, CPR, fracture, Heimlich maneuver, nontoxic, poison control center, sprain
5 Preventing Accidents and Handling Emergencies Section 18-1Preventing Accidents and Handling Emergencies
6 SafetyThe safety of a child is the most important responsibility of every caregiver!Each age has it particular hazards because children of different ages have different abilities.
7 Infants Falls cause the most injuries among babies Babies tend to fall head first, causing brain damage.Never leave a baby unattended.Babies like to suck and chew on almost anything. This can cause 3 hazards:Chocking on small objectsChocking or suffocating on plastic bagsPoisoning- make sure anything that babies could place their mouth on is non toxicHave the poison control number handy at all times!
8 Common Household Poisons Kinds of PoisonExamplesType of ContactMedicinesPrescription PillsOver the Counter MedsVitaminsCold PreparationsSwallowingCleaning ProductsAmmoniaDetergentsBleachCleanersDisinfectantsSkinEyesInhalingPersonal Care ProductsShampoo/ SoapNail Polish and RemoverPerfumes/LotionsMouthwashGardening and Garage ProductsInsecticides/ FertilizersPoisonsGasolinePaint ThinnerAntifreezePlantsEnglish IvyDaffodil BulbsHolly BerriesPoinsettiasCommon Household Poisons
9 Infants, continued A small child should never be left alone near water Don’t only think pool!This includes toilets!Car accidents cause more accidents among children than any other factorUse a, approved safety seat. Adult seat belts do not protect children.
10 Car Seat Laws in Tennessee Children under 1 or any child weighing less than 20 pounds must be in a rear facing restraint systemChildren 1-3 and weighing more than 20 pounds must be in a forward facing restraint systemChildren 4-8 and less than 4’9” tall must be in a belt positioning booster seat system
11 Ages 1-3 Ages 1-3 need very careful supervision! Very mobile Can get into danger quicklyNo toddler should be left unattended more than a few minutes- even if they are within hearing distancePrevent Chocking by teaching toddlers these rules:stay seated while eatingAlways take small bitesChew all food thoroughlySwallow before taking another biteDon’t talk or laugh with food in the mouthKeep small toys and other small objects out of the mouth
12 Safe or Not Safe? Are these objects a choking hazard? Teacher bring in a box of common household items- some safe from choking, some not safe. Ask students if they think each object is safe or not. Get a class answer. Then check each item using a toilet paper roll for choking hazard.Are these objects a choking hazard?
13 Ages 4 and Older Teach children good safety practices! Outdoor play equipment should be firmly anchoredThe ground should be covered with a soft material to cushion fallsAll matches or lighters should be locked awayCaregivers should set and enforce safety rulesMany children are fascinated by fire. All matches and lighters should be locked away.
14 Guidelines for Fast Action If a child in your care gets hurt:Above all, try to remain calm.Evaluate the situationMake the victim comfortableCall for help if necessary911, poison control center, your family doctorGive the minimum necessary first aid treatment
15 Using Standard Precautions Reduce your risks of spreading diseases!Use disposable gloves when changing diapersComplete thorough, frequent hand washingPerform proper cleaning of surfaces and disposal of items which may be contaminatedUse special devices for mouth to mouth resuscitation
16 First AidBe familiar with first aid procedures if you are going to be a care giver!Animal BitesWash the area with soap and waterIf the animal bit the child with provocation, call the local health department so the animal will be tested for rabiesBumps and BruisesTreat with a cold cloth or ice packIf the child complains for more than 1 day, call a doctorCall the doctor if the child looses consciousness, is drowsy or irritable, complains with a headache, or vomits
17 First Aid, continued Bleeding Minor cuts and scrapes- stop the bleeding by placing a clean cloth or gauze pad on the wound and pressing hard for minutes without releasingDeep cuts or wounds- if breathing is rapid and sharp send for medical help; try to stop the bleeding by applying a soft cloth or gauze and pressure; try elevationNosebleeds- have child sit and lean slightly forward; put pressure on the nose with your fingers just below the bones for several minutes; sometimes cold packs help
18 First Aid, continued Burns 1st degree burns- red and slightly swollen; cover the area with cool water or a cold cloth until the pain stops2nd degree burns- deeper, redder, and blistered; use cool water or cloth to start , but should be treated by a physician3rd degree burns- destroy the skin, may look white or charred; may be very little pain at first due to destroyed nerve endings; these burns require immediate medical attentionChemical Burns- wash the affected area immediately with cold water, remove and clothing with the chemical on it (unless it is stuck to the skin), apply a clean bandage, call a doctorElectrical Burns- may be deep but appear minor, cool area with cool water, cover it with a clean bandage, have patient lie down with legs elevated and head turned to one side (to prevent shock), call for an ambulance
19 Choking Recognize the signs of choking: Inability to speak, breathe, or cryBluish lips, nails, and skinHigh-pitched noises or ineffective coughingAct quickly to dislodge the object!Follow the steps on the next slide
22 First Aid, continuedConvulsions: a seizure, a period of unconsciousness with uncontrolled jerking or twitching of the musclesPlace the person on his/her side on the floor and away from any hard objectsDon’t attempt to hold the person downDon’t attempt to place anything between their teethAfter they stop be sure the head is turned to the side to prevent chokingCall the doctor for further instructionsIf they last more than 15 minutes, call an ambulance
23 First Aid, continued Fainting: loss of consciousness May collapse without warning or may first experience sweating, cold skin, nausea, or dizzinessSomeone who feels faint should lie down or sit with their head between their legsWhen a person faints:loosen any tight clothingCheck to be sure they are still breathing; if not, call 911 and begin CPR, if you are certifiedIf person is breathing they should regain consciousness within 2 minutes. If not, call for help
24 First Aid, continued Fractures and Sprains Fracture: break or a crack in a boneSprain: an injury caused by sudden, violent stretching of a joint or muscleBoth may cause pain, swelling, or bruisingIf you suspect a fracture or sprain:Don’t move person until you know how serious it is, this is especially important for back, neck, and collar bone injuriesCall for medical helpTreat mild sprains by elevating and applying cold ice packs
25 First Aid, continued Insect Stings and Bites Stings- includes bees and waspsScrape off stingerCover with a baking soda and water pasteIf the person is allergic take them to the doctor immediately. Don’t wait for symptoms to begin!Watch the person. Take them to the doctor if they become dizzy, faint, difficulty breathing, vomiting, hives, or heavy perspirationTicks-Grab the tick with tweezers as close to the skin as possibleWash the area with soap and waterMosquito, ant, and chiggersBaking soda and water paste will give relief
26 First Aid, continued Poisoning Steps to Take: From swallowed poisons- difficulty in breathing, unconsciousness, fever, burns in the mouth and throat, vomitingSkin contact- burns or rash on the skinEye contact- burning or irritation to the eyes or blindnessInhaled- choking, coughing, nausea, dizzinessSteps to Take:Find out what poisoned the childPhone the poison control center, hospital, or doctorFollow the directions you receive
27 First Aid, continuedShock- due to severe injury, loss of great deal of blood, poisoningImportant body functions are impairedSymptoms- rapid pulse, clammy skin, shallow breathing, enlarged pupils, glassy stare, and nauseaSeek medical care immediatelyKeep person warm and lying downSplinters and ThornsCan become infectedUse sterilized tweezers to remove it then cover with a sterile bandage
28 Rescue TechniquesArtificial Respiration- procedure for forcing air into the lungs of a person whose breathing has stoppedWear protective face mask and glovesCPR-cardiopulmonary resuscitationUsed when both breathing and heart have stoppedSpecial training is needed to perform CPR
29 Activity Each student will create a first aid book Each book should have all of these topics:Table of ContentsFaintingAnimal BitesFractures/ SprainsBleedingInsect Stings and BitesBumps and BruisesPoisoningBurnsShockChokingSplinters and ThornsConvulsionsEmergency Phone Numbers
30 Preventing Illness and Caring for a Sick Child Section 18-2Preventing Illness and Caring for a Sick Child
31 JournalMake a list of words describing how you felt the last time you were sickNow make a list of words describing how you feel when you are wellWhich set of feelings is more enjoyable?
32 Regular Health Care Children should have regular checkups Newborns require frequent checkups through the year.Older children less frequent but at least 1 time a yearCall the doctor for these symptoms: fever, lack of energy, prolonged diarrhea, constipation, vomiting, difficulty breathing, persistent cough, severe headache, and dizziness
33 ImmunizationsImmunize- to protect a person against a particular diseaseCommunicable disease- diseases that are easily passed from one person to anotherVaccine- small amount of disease-carrying germ introduced into the body so the body can build a resistance to itAntibodies- the body produces antibodies that fight off germs for that disease
34 Allergies Allergy- an oversensitivity to one or more common substances Allergies can be brought on by eating, breathing, or touching substancesSymptoms can range from a rash to life threatening reactionsAllergies can’t be curedMedication might be prescribed to help control the allergySome people have allergies so severe they carry a medication called an epi-pen to be used in emergency situations
35 AsthmaAsthma- a condition that affects the lungs where air passages tighten making it difficult to breatheCan be brought on by:allergic reactioncold or fluCold AirStressEtcChildren with asthma can take medication to help open their airways
36 Caring for a Sick ChildContagious- the period of time when a person can easily pass germs on to someone elsePeople who are contagious should stay inside and away from other peopleSometimes children need pain relief or medicine to reduce a feverUse Tylenol or MotrinMake sure you following the dosing guidelines on the bottle
37 Comforting a Sick Child Sick children need extra love and sympathyChildren who are ill don’t have much energy for playChildren of different ages have different needs when illInfants: much more sleep, cranky, may want a lot of physical comfort; gently rock, talk softly , sing, and hold the baby closeAges 1-3: need help keeping comfortable and occupied, staying in bed is difficult, quiet playAges 4-12: can help care for themselves; have better verbal skills; can enjoy playing quietly
38 Going to the HospitalHospitalized children may fear that their parents have abandoned themThey may be frightened that they will be hurt or they will dieIf a hospital stay is scheduled for the future if may be a good idea to visit the hospital ahead of timeWhile in the hospital as much information as possible should be given to the childBe honest- don’t tell them it won’t hurt if it will!
39 Identifying and Treating Diseases Assignment-Each group will put together a presentation on a disease that is included on the chart on pagesInclude:Causes of the diseaseSymptoms of the DiseaseTreatmentPictures