Presentation on theme: "Chapter 18: Safety and Health CHILD AND LIFESPAN DEVELOPMENT."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 18: Safety and Health CHILD AND LIFESPAN DEVELOPMENT
Journal Read the old saying. Write a paragraph about what you think it may mean. “Feed a Cold, Starve a Fever”
State Standards Standard 4.4: Analyze necessary components of a healthy, safe, and stimulating environment during the infant and toddler stages. Standard 5.4: Analyze necessary components of a healthy, safe, and stimulating environment during preschool years. Standard 6.4: Analyze necessary components of a healthy, safe, and stimulating environment during middle childhood. Standard 7.4: Analyze necessary components of a healthy, safe, and stimulating environment during adolescence.
Definition Carousel Around the room find white boards with one word on each. Travel around the room and add a comment about the word. It may be a definition or an example. Only one group at each board at a time!
Preventing Accidents and Handling Emergencies SECTION 18-1
Safety The safety of a child is the most important responsibility of every caregiver! Each age has it particular hazards because children of different ages have different abilities.
Infants Falls cause the most injuries among babies Babies tend to fall head first, causing brain damage. Never leave a baby unattended. Babies like to suck and chew on almost anything. This can cause 3 hazards: Chocking on small objects Chocking or suffocating on plastic bags Poisoning- make sure anything that babies could place their mouth on is non toxic Have the poison control number handy at all times!
Kinds of PoisonExamplesType of Contact MedicinesPrescription Pills Over the Counter Meds Vitamins Cold Preparations Swallowing Cleaning ProductsAmmonia Detergents Bleach Cleaners Disinfectants Swallowing Skin Eyes Inhaling Personal Care Products Shampoo/ Soap Nail Polish and Remover Perfumes/Lotions Mouthwash Swallowing Skin Eyes Inhaling Gardening and Garage Products Insecticides/ Fertilizers Poisons Gasoline Paint Thinner Antifreeze Swallowing Skin Eyes Inhaling PlantsEnglish Ivy Daffodil Bulbs Holly Berries Poinsettias Swallowing Skin Common Household Poisons
Infants, continued A small child should never be left alone near water Don’t only think pool! This includes toilets! Car accidents cause more accidents among children than any other factor Use a, approved safety seat. Adult seat belts do not protect children.
Car Seat Laws in Tennessee Children under 1 or any child weighing less than 20 pounds must be in a rear facing restraint system Children 1-3 and weighing more than 20 pounds must be in a forward facing restraint system Children 4-8 and less than 4’9” tall must be in a belt positioning booster seat system
Ages 1-3 Ages 1-3 need very careful supervision! Very mobile Can get into danger quickly No toddler should be left unattended more than a few minutes- even if they are within hearing distance Prevent Chocking by teaching toddlers these rules: stay seated while eating Always take small bites Chew all food thoroughly Swallow before taking another bite Don’t talk or laugh with food in the mouth Keep small toys and other small objects out of the mouth
SAFE OR NOT SAFE? Are these objects a choking hazard?
Ages 4 and Older Teach children good safety practices! Outdoor play equipment should be firmly anchored The ground should be covered with a soft material to cushion falls All matches or lighters should be locked away Caregivers should set and enforce safety rules Many children are fascinated by fire. All matches and lighters should be locked away.
Guidelines for Fast Action If a child in your care gets hurt: 1. Above all, try to remain calm. 2. Evaluate the situation 3. Make the victim comfortable 4. Call for help if necessary , poison control center, your family doctor 5. Give the minimum necessary first aid treatment
Using Standard Precautions Reduce your risks of spreading diseases! Use disposable gloves when changing diapers Complete thorough, frequent hand washing Perform proper cleaning of surfaces and disposal of items which may be contaminated Use special devices for mouth to mouth resuscitation
First Aid Be familiar with first aid procedures if you are going to be a care giver! Animal Bites Wash the area with soap and water If the animal bit the child with provocation, call the local health department so the animal will be tested for rabies Bumps and Bruises Treat with a cold cloth or ice pack If the child complains for more than 1 day, call a doctor Call the doctor if the child looses consciousness, is drowsy or irritable, complains with a headache, or vomits
First Aid, continued Bleeding Minor cuts and scrapes- stop the bleeding by placing a clean cloth or gauze pad on the wound and pressing hard for minutes without releasing Deep cuts or wounds- if breathing is rapid and sharp send for medical help; try to stop the bleeding by applying a soft cloth or gauze and pressure; try elevation Nosebleeds- have child sit and lean slightly forward; put pressure on the nose with your fingers just below the bones for several minutes; sometimes cold packs help
First Aid, continued Burns 1 st degree burns- red and slightly swollen; cover the area with cool water or a cold cloth until the pain stops 2 nd degree burns- deeper, redder, and blistered; use cool water or cloth to start, but should be treated by a physician 3 rd degree burns- destroy the skin, may look white or charred; may be very little pain at first due to destroyed nerve endings; these burns require immediate medical attention Chemical Burns- wash the affected area immediately with cold water, remove and clothing with the chemical on it (unless it is stuck to the skin), apply a clean bandage, call a doctor Electrical Burns- may be deep but appear minor, cool area with cool water, cover it with a clean bandage, have patient lie down with legs elevated and head turned to one side (to prevent shock), call for an ambulance
Choking 1. Recognize the signs of choking: 1. Inability to speak, breathe, or cry 2. Bluish lips, nails, and skin 3. High-pitched noises or ineffective coughing 2. Act quickly to dislodge the object! 3. Follow the steps on the next slide
First Aid, continued Convulsions: a seizure, a period of unconsciousness with uncontrolled jerking or twitching of the muscles Place the person on his/her side on the floor and away from any hard objects Don’t attempt to hold the person down Don’t attempt to place anything between their teeth After they stop be sure the head is turned to the side to prevent choking Call the doctor for further instructions If they last more than 15 minutes, call an ambulance
First Aid, continued Fainting: loss of consciousness May collapse without warning or may first experience sweating, cold skin, nausea, or dizziness Someone who feels faint should lie down or sit with their head between their legs When a person faints: 1. loosen any tight clothing 2. Check to be sure they are still breathing; if not, call 911 and begin CPR, if you are certified 3. If person is breathing they should regain consciousness within 2 minutes. If not, call for help
First Aid, continued Fractures and Sprains Fracture: break or a crack in a bone Sprain: an injury caused by sudden, violent stretching of a joint or muscle Both may cause pain, swelling, or bruising If you suspect a fracture or sprain: Don’t move person until you know how serious it is, this is especially important for back, neck, and collar bone injuries Call for medical help Treat mild sprains by elevating and applying cold ice packs
First Aid, continued Insect Stings and Bites Stings- includes bees and wasps Scrape off stinger Cover with a baking soda and water paste If the person is allergic take them to the doctor immediately. Don’t wait for symptoms to begin! Watch the person. Take them to the doctor if they become dizzy, faint, difficulty breathing, vomiting, hives, or heavy perspiration Ticks- Grab the tick with tweezers as close to the skin as possible Wash the area with soap and water Mosquito, ant, and chiggers Baking soda and water paste will give relief
First Aid, continued Poisoning From swallowed poisons- difficulty in breathing, unconsciousness, fever, burns in the mouth and throat, vomiting Skin contact- burns or rash on the skin Eye contact- burning or irritation to the eyes or blindness Inhaled- choking, coughing, nausea, dizziness Steps to Take: 1. Find out what poisoned the child 2. Phone the poison control center, hospital, or doctor 3. Follow the directions you receive
First Aid, continued Shock- due to severe injury, loss of great deal of blood, poisoning Important body functions are impaired Symptoms- rapid pulse, clammy skin, shallow breathing, enlarged pupils, glassy stare, and nausea Seek medical care immediately Keep person warm and lying down Splinters and Thorns Can become infected Use sterilized tweezers to remove it then cover with a sterile bandage
Rescue Techniques Artificial Respiration- procedure for forcing air into the lungs of a person whose breathing has stopped Wear protective face mask and gloves CPR-cardiopulmonary resuscitation Used when both breathing and heart have stopped Special training is needed to perform CPR
Activity Each student will create a first aid book Each book should have all of these topics: Table of Contents Animal Bites Bleeding Bumps and Bruises Burns Choking Convulsions Fainting Fractures/ Sprains Insect Stings and Bites Poisoning Shock Splinters and Thorns Emergency Phone Numbers
Preventing Illness and Caring for a Sick Child SECTION 18-2
Journal Make a list of words describing how you felt the last time you were sick Now make a list of words describing how you feel when you are well Which set of feelings is more enjoyable?
Regular Health Care Children should have regular checkups Newborns require frequent checkups through the year. Older children less frequent but at least 1 time a year Call the doctor for these symptoms: fever, lack of energy, prolonged diarrhea, constipation, vomiting, difficulty breathing, persistent cough, severe headache, and dizziness
Immunizations Immunize- to protect a person against a particular disease Communicable disease- diseases that are easily passed from one person to another Vaccine- small amount of disease-carrying germ introduced into the body so the body can build a resistance to it Antibodies- the body produces antibodies that fight off germs for that disease
Allergies Allergy- an oversensitivity to one or more common substances Allergies can be brought on by eating, breathing, or touching substances Symptoms can range from a rash to life threatening reactions Allergies can’t be cured Medication might be prescribed to help control the allergy Some people have allergies so severe they carry a medication called an epi-pen to be used in emergency situations
Asthma Asthma- a condition that affects the lungs where air passages tighten making it difficult to breathe Can be brought on by: allergic reaction cold or flu Cold Air Stress Etc Children with asthma can take medication to help open their airways
Caring for a Sick Child Contagious- the period of time when a person can easily pass germs on to someone else People who are contagious should stay inside and away from other people Sometimes children need pain relief or medicine to reduce a fever Use Tylenol or Motrin Make sure you following the dosing guidelines on the bottle
Comforting a Sick Child Sick children need extra love and sympathy Children who are ill don’t have much energy for play Children of different ages have different needs when ill Infants: much more sleep, cranky, may want a lot of physical comfort; gently rock, talk softly, sing, and hold the baby close Ages 1-3: need help keeping comfortable and occupied, staying in bed is difficult, quiet play Ages 4-12: can help care for themselves; have better verbal skills; can enjoy playing quietly
Going to the Hospital Hospitalized children may fear that their parents have abandoned them They may be frightened that they will be hurt or they will die If a hospital stay is scheduled for the future if may be a good idea to visit the hospital ahead of time While in the hospital as much information as possible should be given to the child Be honest- don’t tell them it won’t hurt if it will!
Identifying and Treating Diseases Assignment- Each group will put together a presentation on a disease that is included on the chart on pages Include: Causes of the disease Symptoms of the Disease Treatment Pictures