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The History of Health Care. Ancient Times Prevention of injury from predators Illness/disease caused by supernatural spirits.

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Presentation on theme: "The History of Health Care. Ancient Times Prevention of injury from predators Illness/disease caused by supernatural spirits."— Presentation transcript:

1 The History of Health Care

2 Ancient Times Prevention of injury from predators Illness/disease caused by supernatural spirits

3 Ancient Times Herbs and plants were used as medicine examples: –Digitalis from foxglove plants Then, leaves were chewed to strengthen & slow heart Now, administered by pills, IV, or injections

4 Ancient Times Herbs and plants were used as medicine examples: –Quinine from bark of cinchona tree Controls fever and muscle spasms Used to treat malaria

5 Ancient Times Herbs and plants were used as medicine examples: –Belladonna and atropine from poisonous nightshade plant relieves muscle spasms especially GI –Morphine from opium poppy relieves severe pain

6 4000 BC – 3000 BC Primitive Times Illness and diseases were a punishment from the Gods Tribal witch doctors treated illness with ceremonies Herbs and plants used as medicines (morphine and digitalis) Trepanation or trephining (surgically removig a piece of bone from the skull) Average life span was 20 years

7 3000 BC – 300 BC Ancient Egyptians Physicians were priests Bloodletting or leeches used as medical treatment Average life span was years

8 Egyptians Earliest to keep accurate health records Superstitious Called upon gods Identified certain diseases Pharaohs kept many specialists

9 Egyptians Priests were the doctors –Temples were places of worship, medical schools, and hospitals –Only the priests could read the medical knowledge from the god Thoth

10 Egyptians Magicians were also healers Believed demons caused disease Prescriptions were written on papyrus

11 Egyptians Embalming –Done by special priests (NOT the doctor priests) –Advanced the knowledge of anatomy –Strong antiseptics used to prevent decay –Gauze similar to today’s surgical gauze

12 Egyptians Research on mummies has revealed the existence of diseases –Arthritis –Kidney stones –Arteriosclerosis

13 Egyptians Some medical practices still used today –Enemas –Circumcision (4000 BC) preceded marriage –Closing wounds –Setting fractures

14 Egyptians Eye of Horus –5000 years ago –Magic eye –amulet to guard against disease, suffering, and evil –History: Horus lost vision in attack by Seth; mother (Isis) called on Thoth for help; eye restored –Evolved into modern day R x sign

15 Jewish Medicine Avoided medical practice Concentrated on health rules concerning food, cleanliness, and quarantine Moses: pre-Hippocratic medical practice –banned quackery (God was the only physician) –enforced Day of Rest

16 1200 BC –200 BC Ancient Greeks First to observe the human body and the effects of disease – led to modern medical sciences. Believed illness is a result of natural causes Used therapies such as massage, art therapy, and herbal treatment Stressed diet and exercise as ways to prevent disease Average life span was years

17 Greek Medicine First to study causes of diseases Research helped eliminate superstitions Sanitary practices were associated with the spread of disease

18 Greek Medicine Hippocrates –no dissection, only observations –took careful notes of signs/symptoms of diseases –disease was not caused by supernatural forces Father of Medicine –wrote standards of ethics which is the basis for today’s medical ethics

19 Hippocrates (460 – 377 BC) Greek physician known as the “Father of Medicine Authored code of conduct for doctors known as the “Hippocratic Oath” that is the basis of medical practice today Believed illness was not caused by evil spirits and stressed importance of good diet, fresh air, cleanliness, and exercise

20 Greek Medicine Aesculapius –staff and serpent symbol of medicine –temples built in his honor because the first true clinics and hospitals

21 753 BC – AD 410 Ancient Romans First to organize medical care by providing care for injured soldiers Later hospitals were religious and charitable institutions in monasteries and convents First public health and sanitation systems by building sewers and aqueducts Galen established belief that the body was regulated by four body humors; blood, phlegm, black bile, and yellow bile Life span was years

22 Roman Medicine Learned from the Greeks and developed a sanitation system –Aqueducts and sewers –Public baths Beginning of public health

23 Roman Medicine First to organize medical care Army medicine Room in doctors’ house became first hospital Public hygiene –flood control –solid construction of homes

24 AD 400 – AD 800 Dark Ages Emphasis on saving the soul and study of medicine was prohibited Prayer and divine intervention were used to treat illness & disease Monks and priests provided custodial care for sill people Medications were mainly herbal mixtures Average life span was years

25 AD 800 – AD 1400 Middle Ages Renewed interest in medical practices of Greek and Romans Bubonic Plague killed 75% of population in Europe and Asia Major diseases included smallpox, diptheria, tuberculosis, typhoid, the plaque, and malaria Arabs began requiring physicians pass examinations and obtain licenses Average life span was years

26 Dark Ages ( A.D.) and Middle Ages ( A.D.) Medicine practiced only in convents and monasteries custodial care life and death in God’s hands

27 Dark Ages ( A.D.) and Middle Ages ( A.D.) Terrible epidemics –Bubonic plague (Black Death) –Small pox –Diphtheria –Syphilis –Measles –Typhonid fever –Tuberculosis

28 Dark Ages (400 –800 A.D.) and Middle Ages ( A. D.) Crusaders spread disease Cities became common Special officers to deal with sanitary problems Realization that diseases are contagious Quarantine laws passed

29 Renaissance Medicine ( A.D.) Universities and medical schools for research Dissection Book publishing

30 AD 1350 – AD 1650 Renaissance Dissection of body led to increased understanding of anatomy and physiology Invention of printing press allowed medical knowledge to be shared First anatomy book was published by Andreas Vesalius ( ) Average life span was years

31 16 th and 17 th Centuries Cause of disease still not known – many people died from infections Invention of the microscope allowed physicians to see disease-causing organisms. Apothecaries (early pharmicists) made, prescribed, and sold medications Ambroise Pare ( ), a French surgeon, known as the Father of Modern Surgery established use of ligatures to stop bleeding Average life span years

32 16 th & 17 th Century Leonardo da Vinci –anatomy of the body Anton van Leeuwekhoek (1676) –invented microscope –observed microorganisms

33 Anton van Leeuwenhoek ( ) Invented the microscope lens that allowed visualization of organisms Scraped his teeth and observed the bacteria that causes tooth decay

34 16 th & 17 th Century William Harvey –circulation of blood Gabriele Fallopian –discovered fallopian tube Bartholomew Eustachus –discovered the eustachian tube Some quackery

35 18 th Century Gabriel Fahrenheit ( ) created the first mercury thermometer John Hunter ( ), established scientific surgical procedures and introduced tube feeding Benjamin Franklin invented bifocals Average life span years

36 18 th Century Edward Jenner 1796 –smallpox vaccination Joseph Priestly –discovered oxygen

37 Edward Jenner ( ) Developed a vaccination for smallpox in 1796

38 18 th Century Benjamin Franklin –invented bifocals –found that colds could be passed from person to person Laennec –invented the stethoscope

39 Benjamin Franklin ( ) Invented bifocals Found that colds could be passed from person to person

40 Rene Laennec ( ) Invented the stethoscope in 1819 First stethoscope was made of wood

41 Elizabeth Blackwell ( ) First female physician in the United States in 1849

42 Florence Nightingale ( ) Known as the “Founder of Modern Nursing” Established efficient and sanitary nursing units during the Crimean War in 1854 Invented the call bell system and use of dumbwaiters to deliver meals Begin the professional education of nurses

43 19th Century Rapid advancements due to discoveries of microorganisms, anesthesia, and vaccinations Infection control developed once microorganisms were associated with disease Formal training for nurses began Women became active participants in health care Average life span years

44 19 th & 20 th Century Inez Semmelweiss –identified the cause of puerperal fever which led to the importance of hand washing Louis Pasteur (1860 –1895) –discovered that microorganisms cause disease (germ theory of communicable disease)

45 Louis Pasteur ( ) Known as the “Father of Microbiology” His germ theory proved that microorganisms cause disease Proved that heat can be used to destroy germs through a process called pasteurization Created a vaccine for rabies in 1885 Founded the basic rules for sterilization

46 Robert Koch ( ) Developed the culture plate method to identify pathogens Isolated the bacterium that causes tuberculosis

47 Clara Barton ( ) Volunteer nurse for wounded soldiers during the Civil War After Civil War, established a bureau of records to search for missing men Campaigned for the USA to sign the Treaty of Geneva, which provided relief for sick and wounded soldiers Formed American Red Cross in 1881 and served as its first president

48 19 th & 20 th Century Joseph Lister –first doctor to use antiseptic during surgery Ernest von Bergman –developed asepsis Robert Koch –Father of Microbiology –identified germ causing TB

49 Joseph Lister ( ) Used carbolic acid on wounds to kill germs First doctor to use an antiseptic during surgery

50 19 th & 20 th Century Wilhelm Roentgen –discovered X-rays Paul Ehrlick –discovered effect of medicine on disease causing microorganisms Anesthesia discovered –nitrous oxide, ether, chloroform

51 Wilhelm Roentgen ( ) Discovered roentgenograms (X- rays) in 1895 Let doctors see inside the body X-rayed wife’s hand

52 Sigmund Freud ( ) Discovered the conscious and unconscious part of the mind His studies were the basis for psychology and psychiatry

53 19 th & 20 th Century Alexander Fleming –discovered penicillin Jonas Salk –discovered that a killed polio virus would cause immunity to polio Alfred Sabin –discovered that a live virus provided more effective immunity

54 Sir Alexander Fleming ( ) Discovered penicillin in 1928 which is considered one of the most important discoveries of the twentieth century

55 Jonas Salk ( ) Albert Sabin (1906 – 1993) Discovered polio vaccine Saved many people from this virus that paralyzed thousands of adults and children each year.

56 1900 to 1945 Acute infectious diseases (diphtheria, TB, rheumatic fever) No antibiotics, DDT for mosquitoes, rest for TB, water sanitation to help stop spread of typhoid fever, diphtheria vaccination Hospitals were places to die Most doctors were general practitioners

57 1945 to 1975 Immunization common antibiotic cures safer surgery Transplants increased lifespan chronic degenerative diseases

58 Christian Barnard (1922 – 2001) Performed first successful heart transplant in 1968

59 Robert Jarvik Creator of the first artificial heart On December 2, 1982, it was implanted into Barney Clark, who lived for the next 112 days The second patient, William Schroeder, lived for 620 days

60 1945 to 1975 new health hazards –obesity –neuroses –lung cancer –hypertension disintegrating families greatly increasing medical costs

61 Current Trends in Health Care

62 Cost Containment Cost of health care began rising due to: –Technological advances –Aging population –Health-related lawsuits Cost Containment measures include: –Diagnostic related groups (DRG) –Combination of services –Outpatient services –Mass or bulk purchasing –Early intervention and preventive services

63 Health care facilities specialized to include: –Home health care –Hospice care –Geriatric care Types of facilities Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA) –Telemedicine

64 Emphasis on promoting wellness of the whole individual: –Physical wellness –Emotional wellness –Social wellness –Mental and intellectual wellness –Spiritual Wellness –Holistic Health

65 Alternative and Complementary Methods of Health Care –Chinese medicine practitioners –Chiropractors –Homeopaths –Hypnotists –Naturopaths

66 National Health Care Plan –Has become a leading topic of debate due to the increasing number of uninsured Americans Education and preparation for a potential pandemic –Due to the high rate international travel, the possibility for a devastating pandemic has increased


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