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Chapter 10 Emotional and Social Development in Middle Childhood Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 10 Emotional and Social Development in Middle Childhood Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 10 Emotional and Social Development in Middle Childhood Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

2 Erikson’s Theory: Industry vs. Inferiority Industry  Developing a sense of competence at useful skills and tasks  School provides many opportunities Inferiority  Pessimism and lack of confidence in own ability to do things well  Negative responses from family, teachers, and peers can contribute to negative feelings Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

3 Changes in Self-Concept During Middle Childhood  More balanced, fewer all-or-none descriptions  Social comparisons  Real vs. ideal self  References social groups  Cultural variations © Monkey Business Images/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

4 Hierarchical Structure of Self-Esteem in Middle Childhood Figure 10.1 (Photos from left to right: © Mary Kate Denny/PhotoEdit; © Tom Pannell/Corbis; © Mitch Wojnarowicz/The Image Works; Radius Images/Photolibrary) Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

5 Influences on Self-Esteem  Culture  Lower for Chinese and Japanese  Higher for African American  Higher if ethnicity and SES match others  Gender  Only slightly higher for boys. © Monkey Business Images/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

6 Role of Parenting in Self-Esteem  Authoritative style is best  Risks of controlling parenting: low self- esteem, aggression, and antisocial behavior  Risks of indulgent parenting: unrealistically high self-esteem, lashing out at challenges to overblown self- images  Encourage worthwhile goal-setting to boost self-esteem Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

7 Achievement-Related Attributions Reason for Success Reason for Failure Mastery- oriented Ability Controllable factors that can be overcome by effort Learned helplessness External factors Ability, which cannot be changed by effort Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

8 Influences on Learned-Helpless Attributions  Parents  believe child incapable  make trait statements  Gender differences  SES, ethnic differences Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk © tmcphotos/Shutterstock

9 Emotional Development in Middle Childhood  Self-conscious emotions: governed by personal responsibility  Emotional understanding:  explains emotion using internal states  understands mixed emotions  empathy increases  Emotional self-regulation:  motivated by self-esteem and peer approval  emotional self-efficacy Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

10 Coping Strategies Problem-Centered Coping  Appraise situation as changeable  Identify difficulty  Decide what to do Emotion-Centered Coping  Use when problem- centered coping does not work  Internal, private, and aimed at controlling distress when little can be done about outcome Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

11 Changes in Moral Understanding  Flexible moral rules:  lying not always bad/truthfulness not always good  considers prosocial and antisocial intentions  Clarifies link between moral imperatives and social conventions:  considers people’s intentions and the contexts of their actions  Cultural similarities/differences Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

12 Understanding Individual Rights  Challenges adult authority within personal domain  Views denials of personal choice as wrong  Places limits on personal choice, typically deciding in favor of kindness and fairness © Monkey Business Images/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

13 Understanding Diversity and Inequality  By the early school years  associates power, privilege with white people  assigns stereotyped traits to minorities  With age, overt prejudice declines:  focuses on inner traits  subtle prejudice may persist © Notte Lourens/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

14 Individual Factors Contributing to Prejudice  Fixed view of personality traits  Overly high self-esteem  Social world in which people are sorted into groups © Monkey Business Images/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

15 Reducing Prejudice  Long-term intergroup contact:  neighborhoods  schools  communities  Fostering belief in changeability of human traits  Volunteering © Monkey Business Images/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

16 Peer Groups  Organize on basis of proximity, similarity  Peer culture:  vocabulary, dress code, gathering place  can involve relational aggression and exclusion © Blend Images/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

17 Friendship in Middle Childhood  Personal qualities, trust become important  More selective in choosing friends:  tends to select friends similar to self  Friendships fairly stable, can last several years  Type of friends affects development:  aggressive friends often magnify antisocial acts Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

18 Categories of Peer Acceptance Popular popular-prosocial popular-antisocial Rejected rejected-aggressive rejected-withdrawn Controversial Neglected Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

19 Bullies and Victims Bullies  Most are boys  Physically, verbally, relationally aggressive  Socially prominent, powerful Victims  Passive when active behavior expected  Lack defenders  Inhibited temperament  Physically frail  Overly protective, controlling parents Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

20 Helping Rejected Children  Coach positive social skills.  Promote perspective taking and social problem solving.  Alter peers’ negative opinions.  Intervene in negative parenting practices. © Dawn Shearer-Simonetti/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

21 Gender Typing in Middle Childhood  Gender stereotypes:  extended to include personalities and school subjects  more flexible views of what males and females can do  Gender identity (third–sixth grade):  boys’ “masculine” identification strengthens  girls become more androgynous Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

22 Gender Identity  Self-evaluations affect adjustment:  gender typicality  gender contentedness  felt pressure to conform to gender roles © Elaine Willcock/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

23 Family Relationships  Parents:  coregulation  Siblings:  rivalry  companionship and assistance  parental encouragement of warm sibling ties is vital © Andresr/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

24 Only Children  High in self-esteem, achievement motivation  Closer relationships with parents:  greater pressure for mastery  Peer acceptance tends to be less favorable:  lack of practice in conflict resolution © tokyoimagegroups/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

25 International Divorce Rates Figure 10.2 (Adapted from U.S. Census Bureau, 2012b.) Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

26 Consequences of Parental Divorce Immediate  Drop in income  Parental stress, disorganized home life  Child reactions vary with age, sex, temperament Long-Term  Improved adjustment after two years  Multiple divorces associated with greater adjustment difficulties  Father’s involvement and effective coparenting improve adjustment Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

27 Helping Families Through Divorce  Shield children from conflict.  Provide continuity in daily life.  Explain the divorce.  Emphasize permanence of situation.  Sympathize with children’s feelings.  Use authoritative parenting.  Promote relationship with both parents. © Monkey Business Images/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

28 Blended Families Mother–Stepfather  Most common  Boys tend to adjust quickly  Girls often adapt less favorably  Older children and adolescents of both sexes display more adjustment problems Father–Stepmother  Often leads to reduced father–child contact  Children in father custody often react negatively  Girls and stepmothers slow to get along at first, gradually adapt favorably Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

29 Maternal Employment and Child Development  Benefits:  higher self-esteem  positive family and peer relations  fewer gender stereotypes  better grades  more father involvement  Drawbacks:  heavy employment demands associated with ineffective parenting © c12/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

30 Fears and Anxieties in Middle Childhood  Common fears include  poor academic performance  peer rejection  personal harm  threats to parents’ health  frightening media events  School phobia:  5–7 years: maternal separation  11–13: particular aspects of school  Harsh living conditions promote severe anxieties Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

31 Ethnic and Political Violence  Chronically dangerous environments:  loss of sense of safety  desensitization to violence  impaired moral reasoning  pessimistic view of future  Parents, communities, schools must provide reassurance, security, intervention:  preserve physical, psychological, educational well-being © ZouZou/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

32 Child Sexual Abuse Characteristics of victims  More often girls  Most cases reported in middle childhood Characteristics of abusers  Usually male  Usually a parent or known by parent  Internet and mobile phones used to commit abuse Consequences  Emotional, physical, and behavioral reactions  May persist for years Prevention and treatment  Prevention: education  Treatment: long-term therapy Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

33 Factors Related to Resilience  Personal characteristics:  easy temperament  mastery orientation  Warm parental relationship  Supportive adult outside family  Community resources © Sascha Burkard/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk


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