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NUTRITION ACROSS THE LIFESPAN. PREGNANCY The nutritional choices that women make when they are pregnant can have a direct impact on their developing babies.

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Presentation on theme: "NUTRITION ACROSS THE LIFESPAN. PREGNANCY The nutritional choices that women make when they are pregnant can have a direct impact on their developing babies."— Presentation transcript:


2 PREGNANCY The nutritional choices that women make when they are pregnant can have a direct impact on their developing babies If planning on becoming pregnant, it is recommended by physicians that women begin making lifestyle changes in advance because critical development of the fetus begins even before a woman may realize she is pregnant

3 PREGNANCY: NUTRIENT NEEDS FOLIC ACID Folic Acid (Vitamin B9) is critical A lack of this vitamin raises the risk of the baby developing a neural tube defect, in which the neural tube (spinal column) fails to close properly during development Complications of this defect include abnormalities of the spine, brain, and skull These complications can result in stillbirth or lifelong disabilities such as spina bifida Neural tube development occurs very early in pregnancy; within the first 4 weeks after conception Therefore it is recommended that all women of child bearing age take a folic acid supplement beginning 3 months before they plan on conceiving until at least 3 months into their pregnancy

4 PREGNANCY: NUTRIENT NEEDS IRON Iron is important to support the increased numbers of red blood cells during pregnancy These blood cells help deliver oxygen to the placenta and the fetus In the final trimester of pregnancy, the fetus builds its own blood- cell stores from the mother’s blood-cell stores, in order to support itself during the first few months of life Low iron levels can result in babies with low birth weights and premature delivery It is recommended by health professionals that pregnant women take a multivitamin containing iron and consume foods rich in iron

5 PREGNANCY: NUTRIENT NEEDS CALORIES Energy needs are higher during pregnancy to support growth and development of baby, but the increase of calories required is not as great as many people believe If too much weight is gained, the mother will have increased difficulty losing the weight post-partum, and there is an increased risk of complications for her and baby during birth Gaining too little weight can cause low birth weight in baby which can increase possibility of various disabilities and health problems as child ages Physicians recommend pregnant women continue to be physically active (according to their health professional’s recommendations) and follow guidelines in CFG

6 PREGNANCY: NUTRIENT NEEDS FOOD SAFETY & SANITATION CONCERNS Pregnant women and their babies have higher risk of foodborne illness A pregnant woman’s immune system is weakened, making her more vulnerable to infections Baby’s immune system is not yet developed so infections can cross through placenta and infect the baby Foodborne illnesses can cause miscarriage, stillbirth, increased risk of other complications for the baby

7 PREGNANCY: NUTRIENT NEEDS FOOD SAFETY & SANITATION CONCERNS CTD. Health professionals caution that pregnant women should refrain from consuming: Hot dogs and/or deli-meats Raw or lightly cooked eggs or egg products (salad dressings, cookie dough, cake batter, etc.) Raw or undercooked meat or poultry Raw seafood Raw or unpasteurized dairy products Raw sprouts Unpasteurized fruit juice and cider

8 INFANCY BREASTFEEDING In their first year of life, infants are growing and developing rapidly, so their Calorie intake is high relative to their size and the food they consume can have a noticeable effect Health professionals agree that breast milk should be the primary source of food for infants Breastfeeding promotes good health and mother-child bonding Colostrum (the thick, yellow breastmilk produced immediately after birth continuing through early days of breastfeeding) is full of antibodies and white blood cells, so breastfed children are less likely to develop infections and allergies Colostrum is easy for babies to digest and acts as a laxative making it easier for infants to pass their first stool

9 INFANCY BREASTFEEDING CTD Because of this, the WHO (World Health Organization) recommends that babies: be fed colostrum within the first hour of birth are exclusively breastfed for the first 6 months of their life Are breastfed and supplemented with solid foods up to age 2 Colostrum changes to mature milk within a few days after birth Foremilk quenches infants’ thirst and changes to hindmilk as feeding progresses Hindmilk relaxes the baby, allows them to feel full, and encourages weight gain

10 INFANCY BARRIERS TO BREASTFEEDING A small percentage of mothers experience difficulties breastfeeding Lactation consultants are available in many countries Some concerns new mothers have regarding breastfeeding include: Their breast milk isn’t as nutritious as formula Being uncomfortable breastfeeding around others Stopping breastfeeding to return to work Society has not always made it easy for women to breastfeed; some public places banned breastfeeding Women find it difficult to express and store milk while at work

11 INDIVIDUAL TASK Using the Nutrition & Healthy Eating textbook (green and white): 1. Go to page 97 2. Read “Spotlight On…Can Food Preferences Begin in Utero?” 3. Answer questions #1-4 4. Hand in your work

12 INFANCY SOLID FOODS At 6 months of age, solid foods are gradually introduced starting with infant cereal Foods need to be introduced one at a time to see if an infant is sensitive to a food If you introduce more than 1 food at a time, you will be unable to assess which food causes the sensitivity Wait 2-3 days before introducing new foods to a baby’s diet Babies who have a parent or sibling with a food allergy are at a greater risk of developing an allergy themselves

13 INFANCY SOLID FOODS CTD Feeding solid foods introduces infants to differences in textures and encourages them to develop the ability to chew and swallow To reduce risk of choking, foods should be cut into very small pieces and served in small portions Infants under 2 years old should drink full-fat dairy products (3% or 2%) Fat is necessary for brain growth and development

14 INFANCY FAMILIAL INFLUENCES ON FOOD CHOICES Families help determine the foods we eat as well as how we eat Adults play an extremely important role in ensuring that good food choices are made during meals and snacks Feeding infants nutritious foods improves their growth and development and sets the stage for good food choices they make as they age and can choose on their own what to eat

15 CHILDHOOD Good nutrition throughout childhood promote proper growth and development, and improved concentration and learning Making nutritious choices during youth sets a pattern for making nutritious choices as they age 17% of children in Canada are overweight and 9% are obese In Canada, obesity levels in children have increased over the past 20 years, while physical activity levels have decreased This is due, in large part, to high caloric intakes and low energy expenditure

16 CHILDHOOD NUTRITIONAL NEEDS IN CHILDREN Children’s calorie and protein needs are higher than adults’ due to greater growth patterns Care needs to be taken to ensure they get adequate amounts of nutrients such as protein to sustain their growth Variety of foods provided exposes children to a variety of flavours and nutrients Poor nutrition in children relates to health concerns such as: Constipation Iron-deficiency anemia Vitamin D deficiency

17 CHILDREN NUTRITIONAL NEEDS IN CHILDREN: VITAMIN D Vitamin D is produced through exposure to the sun but the amount of sun kids are exposed to has decreased due to increased indoor play, increased use of sunscreen due to skin cancer concerns, and wearing clothing that covers much of the skin Vitamin D is available in some food products (milk has been fortified with it as well as soy, almond, and rice beverages) Eggs and fatty fish are other sources of Vitamin D

18 CHILDREN CHILDREN’S FOOD CHOICES Most children go through a time when they are considered “picky eaters”; refusing to eat all but certain foods This behaviour is learned from those around them Modelling appropriate food choices results in children consuming a wider variety of foods Pressuring children to finish their food results in children having a negative reaction to that food, and consuming less food Some children may not like the taste or texture of certain foods as they have more taste buds than adults do, so they find many flavours stronger than adults will

19 CHILDREN CHILDREN’S FOOD CHOICES Children may experience food neophobia; a fear and unwillingness to try new foods They need to be introduced to new foods multiple times before they develop a likeness, or taste, for it. (15 times is possible!) Present foods in a fun way (different shapes and sizes) Hiding vegetables inside other foods (ex: pasta sauce, soups) at least helps ensure children are getting these important nutrients It may, however, dissuade children from becoming familiar with, and eating those vegetables, separately.

20 CHILDREN SOCIAL INFLUENCES ON FOOD CHOICES Seeing what their family, friends, and classmates consume can have a strong influence on children’s food choices When we eat with others we may consume more food as we aren’t conscious of how much food we are putting into our mouths In an attempt to get along with others and mirror what they are doing, children (and adults!) often match what and how much others are eating

21 GROUP TASK In pairs or groups of 3 max, (or you can choose to work individually), complete the following task: 1.Using the Nutrition & Healthy Eating textbook (green and white), go to page 107. 2.Read the “Trends & Change” box titled Fruits and Vegetable Programs. 3.Choose a vegetable that children might not enjoy eating. (Ex: broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, celery, beans, carrots, mushrooms, etc.) 4.On a blank piece of white paper, create a poster targeted at children ages 4-8, that promotes that vegetable and makes it appear fun to eat. 5.Creativity is key! What makes a child interested in anything? Cartoons! Colour! Fun!

22 PREADOLESCENCE & EARLY ADOLESCENCE Puberty brings heightened growth, including growth spurts, so nutrient intake, including energy intake, increases The age at which children, especially girls, experience puberty has lowered over the decades Children with poor diets are more likely to go through puberty earlier Children with diets higher in vegetable protein tend to go through puberty approx. 7 months later than the average whereas children with diets higher in animal protein go through puberty approx. 7 months earlier than the avg.

23 PREADOLESCENCE AND EARLY ADOLESCENCE ROLE OF MEDIA IN FOOD CHOICES Children and youth have increased access to media and programming exposes them to as many as 40,000 advertisements/year Children with high levels of media usage are more likely to consume foods that are less nutrient dense and more energy dense Children who are exposed to more food advertising tend to have higher BMI’s than those who are not TV, video games, and computers/electronic devices reduce the time that youth spend participating in physical activity

24 ADOLESCENCE NUTRITIONAL NEEDS Not all teens are making good food choices, but this is often due to their level of nutrition knowledge Iron-deficiency anemia can affect males and females but is more of a concern among adolescent girls; menstruation Girls recommended intake of iron is higher than boys Iron from animal sources is easily absorbed by GI tract and can be used by the body Calcium can reduce the absorption of iron from vegetable sources making it more difficult for the body to use iron Vitamin C helps increase the absorption of iron, so consuming foods rich in Vit C (citrus fruits, kiwi, tomatoes, broccoli) will help

25 ADOLESCENCE NUTRITIONAL NEEDS CTD. Approx 20 % of teenage girls in Canada report not consuming meat products 35% of teenage girls in Canada consume fewer than the recommended daily servings of Meat & Meat Alternatives Protein continues to be as important for adolescents as it is for children, due to the rapid growth that happens Adolescents need to be mindful of their protein choices; while meats provide complete proteins, they may also be high in fat, especially saturated fat

26 ADOLESCENCE PHYSIOLOGICAL & EMOTIONAL INFLUENCES ON FOOD CHOICES Food is associated with both positive & negative experiences Example: comfort foods we associate with home and comfort, or foods that remind of us of our childhood Our physiological state can also determine how much and what types of foods we choose Example: people who are well rested make better food choices than people who are sleep deprived Certain emotions make us more likely to eat; anger, confusion, loneliness

27 ADOLESCENCE PHYSIOLOGICAL & EMOTIONAL INFLUENCES ON FOOD CHOICES CTD emotional eating can be linked to overconsumption of food which can lead to weight gain & can be a contributing factor in rising obesity levels in society

28 ADULTHOOD Recent studies on Canadian adults’ food intake show that 25% of males and females daily energy needs are coming from foods that are high in sugar, salt, and fat Metabolism slows down gradually as you get older, making it easier to gain weight and harder to lose weight Adults who had no trouble maintaining a healthy weight as adolescents may suddenly find that they gain weight every year

29 ADULTHOOD CTD… As adults are no longer growing, their nutrient needs are different than when they were younger Calories may need to be reduced Nutrient needs of a younger adult (18-25) may be different than those of older adults Ex: iron & folic acid are important for women in childbearing years, while calcium & vitamin D are important for older men and women A relationship between poor diet and fertility problems has been found by researchers (2008)

30 ADULTHOOD ECONOMIC INFLUENCES ON FOOD CHOICE How Canadians spend their food money has changed over the years; we are now spending more at restaurants and less at grocery stores Factors influencing this: Increased availability of restaurants Eating at restaurants has become a common leisure activity For some, the cost of spending money on restaurant food is worth more than spending the time to make the food themselves

31 ECONOMIC INFLUENCES ON FOOD CHOICE CTD… As young adults move away from home, they need to learn how to: prepare nutritious, flavourful meals Budget for groceries Grocery shop Safely store food When you prepare your own meals, more control can be placed over the ingredients, nutritional value, portion size, and to suit personal tastes

32 OLDER ADULTS Energy needs diminish but nutrient needs remain the same as they are for younger adults Seniors need to ensure they consume foods high in nutrients, but low in calories (ex: veg, fruit, whole grains) This means that portion sizes might need to be adjusted Some seniors find their appetites are smaller Physical activity can reduce risk of chronic illness & obesity, and increase cognition Retaining muscle strength is important as it has a bearing on daily functions: ability to pick up items, walking speed, endurance, and maintaining bone mass

33 OLDER ADULTS CTD… Factors impairing older adult’s ability to acquire and prepare food: Lack of transportation Poverty Physical disabilities The end result may be a very limited diet Solutions: Community programs (Meals on Wheels or other programs that deliver prepared meals once a day) Some grocery stores have ordering and delivery programs

34 THINK (ON YOUR OWN), PAIR (DISCUSS WITH PARTNER), SHARE (WITH CLASS) ACTIVITY In addition to food, what other benefits could seniors gain from food delivery programs such as Meals on Wheels?

35 OLDER ADULTS: NUTRITIONAL NEEDS Food moves through older adult’s digestive system more slowly Constipation may be more of a concern than it is in younger adults Eating a diet high in fibre (whole grains, fruits, vegetables, nuts, and seeds) and consuming an adequate amount of water are important Dehydration is a big concern for older adults since they are less likely to experience thirst Vitamin D deficiency can result in osteomalacia (the softening of bones) when it occurs in adulthood Adequate Vitamin D and calcium levels among older adults helps to reduce the number of falls they experience

36 OLDER ADULTS: NUTRITIONAL NEEDS CTD… Health Canada recommends that adults over the age of 50 take a Vitamin D supplement Prescription and over-the-counter medication can affect the absorption of some nutrients into the bloodstream so all medications and supplements should be discussed with health professionals before consuming

37 IMPORTANT TO UNDERSTAND OUR SOCIETY IS OBESE!! Our society is increasingly obesogenic, which makes it increasingly difficult for people to maintain a healthy weight Influences on obesity in our society: Widespread availability of inexpensive, energy-dense foods Vending machines Food delivery options Ready-to-eat foods Increased portion sizes Low cost of these foods

38 IMPORTANT TO UNDERSTAND HOW WE CAN CHANGE Healthy Canada by Design – a coalition of regional health authorities and urban planners This coalition examines how communities can be designed to improve aspects of health Example: creating bike lanes and walking and running paths THINK: What has your community done to help improve aspects of health in it’s community members?

39 FINAL INDIVIDUAL TASK With this note, you have:  Compared nutrient needs of various life stages  Identified influences on nutrient needs throughout the lifespan  Described various influences on food choices On a long sheet of paper, create a time line to represent a person’s lifespan from infant to older adult. On one side of the time line, indicate important nutrient requirements of each stage of life. On the other side of the time line, describe some of the factors that may influence food preferences at each stage. Infancy childhood preadolescenceadolescenceadultolder adult

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