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Chapter 7 Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 7 Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 7 Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

2 Physical Development in Early Childhood  Skeletal growth:  new epiphyses emerge  lose baby teeth  Brain development:  rapid growth of the prefrontal cortex  hemispheres continue to lateralize Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

3 Handedness  Reflects dominant cerebral hemisphere:  right-handed (90%)— left hemisphere  left-handed (10%)— both hemispheres  Jointly influenced by nature and nurture:  position in uterus  practice © Elena Stepanova/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

4 Brain Development in Early Childhood  Left hemisphere especially active:  language skills  handedness  Links among parts of the brain increase:  cerebellum  reticular formation  hippocampus  corpus callosum Figure 7.2 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

5 Influences on Physical Growth and Health  Heredity and hormones:  growth hormone  thyroid-stimulating hormone  Nutrition  Infectious disease:  malnutrition  immunization  Childhood injuries © CandyBox Images/Fotolia Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

6 Nutrition in Early Childhood  Appetite declines  Wariness of new foods is adaptive  Needs a high-quality diet  Imitates others’ food choices  Poor-quality diet is associated with cognitive deficits and behavior problems Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

7 Infectious Disease and Malnutrition  Poor diet depresses immune system  Illness reduces appetite  Diarrhea a danger in developing countries; can be helped by  oral rehydration therapy  zinc supplements © Creativa/Fotolia Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

8 Immunizations  About 30% of U.S. children lack immunizations  Reasons include  cost  parents’ stressful daily lives  misconceptions about vaccine safety © Jaimie Duplass/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

9 Factors Related to Childhood Injuries  Gender and temperament  Poverty, single parenthood, low parental education  Societal conditions:  international differences  teenage parents  shortage of high-quality child care Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

10 International Death Rates Due to Injury Figure 7.3 (Adapted from World Health Organization, 2008.) Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

11 Motor Development in Early Childhood  Gross-motor skills:  balance improves  gait smooth and rhythmic by age 2  upper- and lower-body skills combine into more refined actions by age 5  greater speed and endurance  Fine-motor skills:  self-help: dressing, eating  drawing and printing Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

12 Progression of Drawing Skills  Scribbles  First representational forms:  draws first recognizable pictures: 3 years  draws boundaries and tadpole people: 3–4 years  More complex drawings: 5–6 years  Early printing: 4–6 years Figure 7.4 (Left: Reprinted by permission from Artful Scribbles by Howard Gardner. Available from Basic Books, an imprint of The Perseus Books Group. Copyright © Right: From E. Winner, “Where Pelicans Kiss Seals,” Psychology Today, 20[8], August 1986, p. 35. Reprinted by permission from the collection of Ellen Winner.) Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

13 Piaget’s Preoperational Stage  Ages 2 to 7  Gains in mental representation:  make-believe play  symbol–real-world relations  Limitations in thinking:  egocentrism  lack of conservation  lack of hierarchical classification Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

14 Early Childhood Development of Make-Believe  With age, make-believe gradually  detaches from real-life conditions  becomes less self-centered  becomes more complex  Sociodramatic play develops © Lisa Eastman/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

15 Benefits of Make-Believe Play  Contributes to cognitive and social skills  Strengthens mental abilities:  sustained attention  memory  language and literacy  creativity  regulation of emotion  perspective taking © Mat Hayward/Fotolia Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

16 Dual Representation  Viewing a symbolic object as both an object and a symbol  Strengthens around age 3  Adult teaching can help:  experiences with maps, photos, drawings, and make-believe play  pointing out similarities of symbols to real world Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

17 Egocentrism Failure to distinguish others’ viewpoints from one’s own Figure 7.5 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

18 Animistic Thinking Belief that inanimate objects have lifelike qualities © Rob Marmion/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

19 Conservation Understanding that physical characteristics remain the same when appearance changes:  Centration: focus on one aspect to neglect of others  Irreversibility: inability to mentally reverse a series of steps Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

20 Piagetian Conservation Tasks Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Figure 7.6 Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

21 Piaget’s Class Inclusion Problem Figure 7.7 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

22 Follow-Up Research on Preoperational Thought Egocentrism  Able to take others’ perspectives  Animistic thinking results from incomplete knowledge of objects Logical thought  Conservation evident on simplified tasks  Reasons by analogy about physical changes Categorization  Hierarchical classification evident in everyday knowledge Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

23 Evaluation of Piaget  Development of logical operations is gradual  Disagreement over whether a preoperational stage really exists  some experts deny the stage approach  others support a flexible stage notion—a related set of competencies develops over an extended period Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

24 Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory  Private speech  Zone of proximal development  Scaffolding: support of an “expert” © Blend Images/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

25 Children’s Private Speech  For Piaget, “egocentric speech”  For Vygotsky, the foundation for all higher cognitive processes  Serves a self-guiding function; increases during challenging tasks  Gradually internalized as silent, inner speech Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

26 Zone of Proximal Development Scaffolding:  Adults aid learning by adjusting support to child’s level of performance  Effectiveness varies culturally © Irina Schmidt/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

27 Evaluation of Vygotsky’s Theory  Helps us understand cultural variation in cognition  Focuses on language, deemphasizes other routes to cognitive development  Says little about how basic elementary capacities (motor, perceptual, attention, memory, and problem-solving skills) contribute to higher cognitive processes Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

28 Gains in Information Processing  Attention: inhibition, planning  Memory: recognition, recall, episodic memory  Theory of mind: false belief  Emergent literacy: Active efforts to construct knowledge through informal experience. © David Huntley Creative/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

29 Recognition and Recall Recognition  Noticing that a stimulus is identical or similar to one previously experienced Recall  Generating a mental representation of an absent stimulus  More difficult than recognition Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

30 Episodic Memory  Scripts: memory for familiar everyday events  Autobiographical memory: memory for one-time events © auremar/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

31 Autobiographical Memory  Improves with cognitive and conversational skills  Influence of adult interaction:  elaborative style: fosters organized and detailed personal stories  repetitive style: weak at promoting autobiographical recall Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

32 The Young Child’s Theory of Mind  Early awareness of mental life: infancy through age 3  Mastery of false belief tasks: around age 4  Factors contributing to mastery of false belief:  language  executive function  social experiences Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

33 Fostering Emergent Literacy  Language skills:  phonological awareness  vocabulary and grammar  Informal literacy experiences:  games  interactive reading  writing  Books for low-SES families © Ami Parikh/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

34 Early Childhood Mathematical Reasoning  Ordinality:  order relationships between quantities  14–16 months  Cardinality:  when counting, last number is the total  3½–4 years © Michael Jay Berlin/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

35 Features of a High-Quality Home Environment  Stimulation:  toys, games, reading  language  academic  Physical organization  Emotional support  Modeling and encouragement  Variety in stimulation  No physical punishment © Monkey Business Images/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

36 Types of Preschool Child-Centered  Children select from wide variety of activities  Learn through play Academic  Teachers structure learning  Formal lessons:  letter, numbers, colors, shapes  repetition and drill Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

37 Vocabulary Development  Fast-mapping:  object names  verbs  modifiers  Coins new words  Uses metaphors © Monkey Business Images/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

38 Supporting Early Childhood Language  Conversation with adults  Recasts: restructuring inaccurate speech to correct form  Expansions: elaborating on children’s speech © Jenkedco/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk


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