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CHILD MACROSYSTEM Attitudes and ideologies of the culture EXOSYSTEM Extended family MESOSYSTEM Friends of family Neighbors FamilySchool Health services.

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Presentation on theme: "CHILD MACROSYSTEM Attitudes and ideologies of the culture EXOSYSTEM Extended family MESOSYSTEM Friends of family Neighbors FamilySchool Health services."— Presentation transcript:

1 CHILD MACROSYSTEM Attitudes and ideologies of the culture EXOSYSTEM Extended family MESOSYSTEM Friends of family Neighbors FamilySchool Health services Peers Church group Neighborhood play area Daycare center Mass media Legal services Social welfare services MICROSYSTEM Bronfenbrenner's Four Ecological Settings for Development Change

2 Lifespan Perspectives on Human Development IssueKey Question Continuity within change Lifelong growth Changing vantage points Development diversity How do we account for underlying continuity in qualities, behaviors, and skills in spite of apparent change? What is the potential for growth - emotional, cognitive, and physical - throughout the lifespan? How do key life events change in meaning across the lifespan and as a result of changing roles and experiences? What factors create differences in individuals' development across the lifespan?


4 Genetics, Heredity, Biology KANT: Early preformation theory. We are born with potential that just unfolds. We have a priori understanding. Molds exist in e mind, integrating experiences ROUSSEAU: Children born with sense of right and wrong, just allow them to develop. GALTON: Coined expression “nature vs. nurture.” Believed “Hereditary Genius” eminence runs in families. Proponent of the Eugenics movement to improve human race. PIAGET: Universal cognitive maturational stages FREUD: psychosexual stages CHOMSKY: prewired L.A.D. (language acquisition device) Behavioral geneticists Environment, Experience, Learning LOCKE (1690): “tabula rasa” J. S. Mill: A Child prodigy who attributed his genius to training. PAVLOV (1904): Classical conditioning J. B. WATSON: “Little Albert” behaviorist study B. F. SKINNER: operant conditioning Philosophers on Nature vs. Nurture

5 1. Focus on a topic  make careful observations and review literature. 2. Formulate a hypothesis. 3. Test the hypothesis via:  Laboratory experiments, which include Operational definitions Control groups Cross-sectional, longitudinal, or sequential design  Naturalistic studies  Surveys  Interviews  Case Studies  Correlational Studies 4. Collect and analyze data 5. Draw conclusions 6. Make results available Scientific Method

6 Advantages and Disadvantages of Information-Gathering Approaches DesignDescriptionAdvantagesDisadvantages Naturalistic Observations Observations of behaviors as they occur in children's real-life environments. Observations of behaviors in situations constructed by the experimenter. Asking children (or parents) about what they know or how they behave. Statistical analysis of other researchers' findings to look for the size of a variable's effects. Structured Observations Meta-analytic Studies Interviews and Questionnaires Can note antecedents and consequences of behaviors; see real-life behaviors. More control over conditions that elicit behaviors. Quick way to assess children's knowledge or reports of their behaviors. Pool a large body of research findings to sort out conflicting findings; no participants are observed. Possibility of participant reactivity and observer bias; less control over variables; cause-and-effect relation- ships difficult to establish. Children may not react as they would in real life. Children may not always respond truthfully or accurately; systematic comparisons of responses may be difficult; theoretical orientation of researcher and interpretations of answers. Requires careful mathematical computation; variables may not have been defined identically across all studies.

7 Strengths and Weaknesses of Research Designs DesignDescriptionStrengthsWeaknesses Correlational Design Researcher sees if changes in one variable are accompanied by systematic changes in another variable. Researcher manipulates one of more independent variables to observe the effects on the dependent variable(s). Experiment conducted in real-life, naturalistic settings. Assignment of participants to groups is determined by their natural experiences Experimental Design Quasi- experiment Field Experiment Useful when conditions do not permit the manipulation of variables. Can isolate cause-and- effect relationships. Can isolate cause-and- effect relationships; behaviors are observed in natural settings. Takes advantage of natural separation of children into groups. Cannot determine cause- and-effect relationships. May not yield information about real-life behaviors. Less control over treatment conditions. Factors other than independent variables may be causing results. In-depth observation of one or a few children over a period of time. Single-Case Design Do not require large pool of participants. Ability to generalize to the larger population may be limited.

8 Strategies for Assessing Developmental Change Approach Longitudinal Study Repeated testing of the same group of children over an extended period of time. Comparison of children of different ages at the same point in time. Observation of children of two or more different ages over a shorter period of time when in longitudinal studies. Cross- Sectional Study Sequential Study Can examine the stability of characteristics. Requires less time; less costly than longitudinal study. Combines the advantages of both longitudinal and cross- sectional approaches; can obtain information about stability of traits in a short period of time. Requires a significant investment of time and resources; problems with participant attrition; can have age-history confound. Cannot study individual patterns of development or the stability of traits; subject to cohort effects. Has same problems as longitudinal studies; but to a lesser degree. DescriptionAdvantagesDisadvantages

9 Acts of aggression Less Exposure to violent TV Less POSITIVE CORRELATION More Illnesses Less More Crimes Less More Optimism scores Low NEGATIVE CORRELATION High Phases of the moon New ZERO CORRELATION Full

10 Y is the dependent variable (such as test scores, number of errors, speed, muscle contractions, aggressive acts, etc.) Xs are independent variables (such as age, sex, drug, intelligence, etc., and the experimental treatment) Dependent and Independent Variables Y = f x (x 1, x 2, x 3, … x n )


12 Confidentiality Full disclosure of purposes Respect for children's and parents' freedom to participate Informed consent In loco parentis ETHICAL CONSTRAINTS ON STUDYING CHILD DEVELOPMENT

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