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Copyright © 2012 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill/Irwin CHAPTER 5 Motor Behavior.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2012 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill/Irwin CHAPTER 5 Motor Behavior."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2012 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill/Irwin CHAPTER 5 Motor Behavior

2 2 Goals of Motor Behavior  Understand how motor skills are learned  Understand how motor skills are controlled  Understand how learning and control of motor skills changes across the lifespan Thomas and Thomas

3 3 Definitions  Motor Learning –acquisition of motor skills as a result of practice and experience  Motor Control –neurophysiological and behavioral processes affecting the control of skilled movements  Motor Development –origins of and changes in movement behavior throughout the lifespan

4 4 Learning  Relatively permanent change in behavior or performance as a result of instruction, experiences, study, and/or practice.  Inferred from changes in performance.  Motor behavior is concerned with the learning or acquisition of skills across the lifespan.  Motor learning  Motor control  Motor development

5 5 Motor Learning and Motor Control

6 6 Historical Development  Early Period (1880-1940)  Research focused on how the mind worked, not the production of skills.  Thorndike: Law of Effect  When responses were rewarded, the behavior was strengthened.  Middle Period (1940-1970)  Craik focused research on how the brain processes and uses information to determine the motor response.  Henry - “Memory drum theory” (role of cognitive activity in motor learning)

7 7 Historical Development  Present Period (1970-present)  Emergence of motor learning and motor control within physical education programs.  Closed Loop theory (Adams)  Schema theory (Schmidt)  Dynamical Systems theory (Kelso)

8 8 Sample Research Questions  How does the type and frequency of feedback impact skill acquisition?  How does the structure of practice influence the retention of skills?  What can be done to facilitate the transfer of previous learning to the learning of new skills?  How does the aging process affect motor control?  How do differences in individuals’ learning styles influence their ability to learn motor skills?

9 9 Information-Processing Model Input Decision- Making Output Feedback

10 10 Dynamical-System Theory Individual Heredity Past Experience Individual Characteristics Etc. Environmen t Teacher Skills & Behavior Sociocultural Characteristics Weather Etc. Task Demands Rules Difficulty Equipment Etc. Human Movement

11 11 Stages of Learning  Cognitive Stage  Understanding of the nature and goal of the activity  Initial attempts at the skill - gross errors  Associative Stage  Practice on mastering the timing of the skill  Fewer and more consistent errors  Autonomous Stage  Well coordinated and appears effortless  Few errors  “Automatic” performance allows attention to be directed to other aspects of skill performance

12 12 Open vs Closed Skills Closed Skills Stable, predictable; self- paced Diving 2 ½ somersault Bowling Driving golf ball off a tee Open Skills Variable, unpredictable; externally-paced Hitting tennis forehand in a match Defending a player during a soccer game Offensive play during rugby game

13 13 Factors Influencing Learning  Readiness  Physiological and psychological factors influencing an individual’s ability and willingness to learn.  Motivation  A condition within an individual that initiates activity directed toward a goal. Concern with initiation, maintenance, and intensity of behavior.  Reinforcement  Using events, actions, and behaviors to increase the likelihood of a certain response recurring. May be positive or negative.  Individual differences  Backgrounds, abilities, intelligence, learning styles, and personalities of learners.

14 14 Motor Learning Concepts  Structure practice sessions to promote optimal conditions for learning.  Help learners understand the skill or task.  Design practice according to the skill or task to be learned.  Whether to teach by the whole or the part method depends on the skill and the learner.  Whether speed or accuracy is emphasized in teaching a skill depends on the requirements of the skill.

15 15 Motor Learning Concepts  Transfer of learning can facilitate the acquisition of motor skills.  Feedback is essential for learning.  Knowledge of results (KR)  Knowledge of performance (KP)  Learners may experience plateaus in learning.  Develop self-analysis.  Leadership influences the amount of learning.

16 16 Motor Development

17 17 Motor Development  Study of the origins and changes in movement behavior throughout the lifespan.  Biological and environmental influences on motor behavior from infancy to old age.  Influence of psychological, sociological, cognitive, biological, and mechanical factors on motor behavior.  Rate and sequence of development.

18 18 Historical Development  Maturational Period (1928-1946)  Research on the underlying biological processes guiding maturation.  Focus on rate and sequences of motor development from infancy in terms of acquisition of rudimentary and mature movements.  Normative/Descriptive Period (1946-1970s)  Description of the motor performances of children.  Research on how growth and maturation affect performance and the impact of perceptual-motor development.  Process-Oriented Period (1980s-present)  Research on how cognitive factors influence motor skill acquisition and motor development based on dynamical systems theory.

19 19 Sample Research Questions  How does socioeconomic status affect the development of motor skills?  How does early sensory stimulation affect the development of motor skills?  What are the changes in motor skill development experienced across the lifespan?  What are the developmental stages individuals go through as they acquire fundamental skills?  What are the heredity and environmental factors most significantly associated with obesity?  At what age can children safely engage in resistance training?

20 20 Phases of Development  Early reflexive & rudimentary movement phases  Hereditary is the primary factor for development. Sequential progression of development but individuals’ rates of development will differ.  Fundamental movement phase  Skill acquisition based on encouragement, instruction, and opportunities for practice.  Specialized movement phase  Skill refinement  Hereditary and environmental factors influence the rate of the aging process.

21 21 Fundamental Motor Skills  Fundamental motor skills are the foundation for development of more complex and specialized motor skills used in games, sports, dance, and fitness activities.  Classification:  Locomotor  Nonlocomotor  Manipulative

22 22 Fundamental Motor Skills  Locomotor  Examples: walking, running, jumping, hopping, leaping, sliding, skipping, galloping, dodging  Nonlocomotor  Examples: bending, stretching, pushing, pulling, twisting, turning, swinging  Manipulative  Examples: throwing, catching, striking, kicking, dribbling, volleying

23 23 Fundamental Motor Skills  Rate of progress in developing these skills varies with each individual.  Several fundamental motor skills can be combined to create a specialized movement necessary in an activity.  Lack of development of fundamental skills may hinder future participation in activities.

24 24 Acquisition of Fundamental Skills  Initial Stage (~ age 2)  Poor spatial and temporal integration of skill movements.  Improper sequencing of the parts of the skill  Poor rhythm, difficulties in coordination  Elementary Stage (~ age 3 & 4)  Greater control and rhythmical coordination  Temporal and spatial elements are better synchronized.  Movements are still restricted, exaggerated, or inconsistent.  Mature Stage (~age 5 or 6)  Increased efficiency, enhanced coordination, and improved control of movements.  Greater force production


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