2Goals of Motor Behavior Understand how motor skills are learnedUnderstand how motor skills are controlledUnderstand how learning and control of motor skills changes across the lifespanThomas and Thomas
3DefinitionsMotor Learning –acquisition of motor skills as a result of practice and experienceMotor Control –neurophysiological and behavioral processes affecting the control of skilled movementsMotor Development –origins of and changes in movement behavior throughout the lifespan
4LearningRelatively permanent change in behavior or performance as a result of instruction, experiences, study, and/or practice.Inferred from changes in performance.Motor behavior is concerned with the learning or acquisition of skills across the lifespan.Motor learningMotor controlMotor development
6Historical Development Early Period ( )Research focused on how the mind worked, not the production of skills.Thorndike: Law of EffectWhen responses were rewarded, the behavior was strengthened.Middle Period ( )Craik focused research on how the brain processes and uses information to determine the motor response.Henry - “Memory drum theory” (role of cognitive activity in motor learning)
7Historical Development Present Period (1970-present)Emergence of motor learning and motor control within physical education programs.Closed Loop theory (Adams)Schema theory (Schmidt)Dynamical Systems theory (Kelso)
8Sample Research Questions How does the type and frequency of feedback impact skill acquisition?How does the structure of practice influence the retention of skills?What can be done to facilitate the transfer of previous learning to the learning of new skills?How does the aging process affect motor control?How do differences in individuals’ learning styles influence their ability to learn motor skills?
9Information-Processing Model InputDecision-MakingOutputFeedback
10Dynamical-System Theory IndividualHeredityPast ExperienceIndividual CharacteristicsEtc.EnvironmentTeacher Skills & BehaviorSociocultural CharacteristicsWeatherTaskDemandsRulesDifficultyEquipmentHuman Movement
11Stages of Learning Cognitive Stage Associative Stage Autonomous Stage Understanding of the nature and goal of the activityInitial attempts at the skill - gross errorsAssociative StagePractice on mastering the timing of the skillFewer and more consistent errorsAutonomous StageWell coordinated and appears effortlessFew errors“Automatic” performance allows attention to be directed to other aspects of skill performance
12Open vs Closed Skills Closed Skills Open Skills Stable, predictable; self-pacedDiving 2 ½ somersaultBowlingDriving golf ball off a teeOpen SkillsVariable, unpredictable; externally-pacedHitting tennis forehand in a matchDefending a player during a soccer gameOffensive play during rugby gameClosed SkillsStable, predictable; self-pacedDiving 2 ½ somersaultBowlingDriving golf ball off a tee
13Factors Influencing Learning ReadinessPhysiological and psychological factors influencing an individual’s ability and willingness to learn.MotivationA condition within an individual that initiates activity directed toward a goal. Concern with initiation, maintenance, and intensity of behavior.ReinforcementUsing events, actions, and behaviors to increase the likelihood of a certain response recurring. May be positive or negative.Individual differencesBackgrounds, abilities, intelligence, learning styles, and personalities of learners.
14Motor Learning Concepts Structure practice sessions to promote optimal conditions for learning.Help learners understand the skill or task.Design practice according to the skill or task to be learned.Whether to teach by the whole or the part method depends on the skill and the learner.Whether speed or accuracy is emphasized in teaching a skill depends on the requirements of the skill.
15Motor Learning Concepts Transfer of learning can facilitate the acquisition of motor skills.Feedback is essential for learning.Knowledge of results (KR)Knowledge of performance (KP)Learners may experience plateaus in learning.Develop self-analysis.Leadership influences the amount of learning.
17Motor DevelopmentStudy of the origins and changes in movement behavior throughout the lifespan.Biological and environmental influences on motor behavior from infancy to old age.Influence of psychological, sociological, cognitive, biological, and mechanical factors on motor behavior.Rate and sequence of development.
18Historical Development Maturational Period ( )Research on the underlying biological processes guiding maturation.Focus on rate and sequences of motor development from infancy in terms of acquisition of rudimentary and mature movements.Normative/Descriptive Period ( s)Description of the motor performances of children.Research on how growth and maturation affect performance and the impact of perceptual-motor development.Process-Oriented Period (1980s-present)Research on how cognitive factors influence motor skill acquisition and motor development based on dynamical systems theory.
19Sample Research Questions How does socioeconomic status affect the development of motor skills?How does early sensory stimulation affect the development of motor skills?What are the changes in motor skill development experienced across the lifespan?What are the developmental stages individuals go through as they acquire fundamental skills?What are the heredity and environmental factors most significantly associated with obesity?At what age can children safely engage in resistance training?
20Phases of DevelopmentEarly reflexive & rudimentary movement phasesHereditary is the primary factor for development. Sequential progression of development but individuals’ rates of development will differ.Fundamental movement phaseSkill acquisition based on encouragement, instruction, and opportunities for practice.Specialized movement phaseSkill refinementHereditary and environmental factors influence the rate of the aging process.
21Fundamental Motor Skills Fundamental motor skills are the foundation for development of more complex and specialized motor skills used in games, sports, dance, and fitness activities.Classification:LocomotorNonlocomotorManipulative
23Fundamental Motor Skills Rate of progress in developing these skills varies with each individual.Several fundamental motor skills can be combined to create a specialized movement necessary in an activity.Lack of development of fundamental skills may hinder future participation in activities.
24Acquisition of Fundamental Skills Initial Stage (~ age 2)Poor spatial and temporal integration of skill movements.Improper sequencing of the parts of the skillPoor rhythm, difficulties in coordinationElementary Stage (~ age 3 & 4)Greater control and rhythmical coordinationTemporal and spatial elements are better synchronized.Movements are still restricted, exaggerated, or inconsistent.Mature Stage (~age 5 or 6)Increased efficiency, enhanced coordination, and improved control of movements.Greater force production