Presentation on theme: "2 World Energy Resources We all need energy to do a wide variety of our daily activities: To keep warm To cook To travel For industry to produce."— Presentation transcript:
2 World Energy Resources We all need energy to do a wide variety of our daily activities: To keep warm To cook To travel For industry to produce things We are lucky in that we have so many different ways to produce energy.
3 The next few pages…. Show a couple of graphs and choropleth maps REMEMBER: these are maps that shade by region – often using darker versions of the same colours for higher values of whatever the variable is – which are often difficult to distinguish one scale from another! There are similar ones on pages 82/3 of the textbook which give a bit more detail. However the book ones use kg of coal equivalent while these use barrels of oil. This is because coal comes in a variety of types and I could not find a good conversion value! So I converted to barrels of oil as that conversion rate was easier.
4 This shows the relative importance of each in 2005 These can be grouped into: Non- renewable Non- renewable – the fossil fuels such as oil, gas and coal that cannot be replaced and will run out Renewable Renewable such as solar, water and wind as they will never run out. Sustainable Sustainable can be go on being used provided it is used carefully and replenishment is maintained e.g. planting trees for fuel-wood
5 Controversy over nuclear power as a renewable energy source In 1983, physicist Bernard Cohen proposed that uranium is effectively inexhaustible, and could therefore be considered a renewable source of energy. He claimed that uranium extracted from seawater could supply energy at least as long as the sun's expected remaining lifespan of five billion years. Nuclear energy has also been referred to as "renewable" by the politicians George W. Bush and David Sainsbury. But inclusion under the "renewable energy" classification could mean that nuclear power projects eligible for development aid. But nowhere has this happened.
6 Controversy over nuclear power as a renewable energy source In addition, it has not been established that nuclear energy is inexhaustible, and issues such as peak uranium and uranium depletion are ongoing debates. There are also environmental concerns over nuclear power, including the dangerous environmental hazards of nuclear waste. Some say that development of new plants cannot happen quickly enough to reduce CO 2 emissions, so that many say that nuclear energy is neither an efficient nor an effective way of cutting CO 2 emissions. So where does this put nuclear power? Not sure that anyone has decided! [Although your textbook has come on the non-renewable side – not that I think they are always right – see Slide 12 onwards]
7 Produces the most? What do you notice about this graph? Which region? Uses the most?
8 This shows the production by area per capita in barrels of oil Most of the energy production is in the MEDCs and the Middle East
9 Notice that this energy production does not include wood or biomass fuels Many people in LEDCs rely on wood to supply there energy needs. But this is becoming problematic as the wood, burnt on open fires is getting used up. Also cooking over open fires causes eye and breathing problems. appropriate technology But appropriate technology has helped by giving Kenyan women a trade making and selling the Upesi Stove, while increasing the efficiency of the wood burnt and reducing the health problems associated with open fires.
10 This shows the consumption by area per capita in barrels of oil While North America and Europe use 70% of the energy produced, only 20% of the population live there
11 I hope you noticed that.. consumers producers The major consumers are also among the major producers The amount of energy a country uses has always been an indicator of the level of development – the more they use, the more industry they have and better the standard of living of the population. As these countries have also produced a lot in the past, the availability of energy was one of the main factors that kick started their development in the first place. However, many of their reserves are beginning to be exhausted and so they are looking to other parts of the world to import from. In addition, environmental problems are leading many to look for alternatives and also to reduce their overall need for energy in an attempt to make better use of what they have
12 The next part of the syllabus The relative merits of using renewable and non-renewable sources of energy The textbook tackles this by providing 4 pages of fact files about each and every source [pages 84-87] As stated early, I have a couple of problems with these!!
13 These have been divided into 2 groups 1. Non- renewables: Fossil fuels: coal, oil, natural gas, fuelwood Other: nuclear 2. Renewables: Hydro-electric, tidal, Solar, geothermal, wind, biomass/biogas Anyone have any problems here?
14 OK Lets work through them – the Fuel Fact Files Coal Coal Status: non-renewable fossil fuel Description: where formed? What from? Lifespan: 230 years % of the world’s energy: 21 Main producers: USA, China, Australia, India, South Africa Energy uses: electricity, heating, coke Advantages:? Disadvantages:?
15 The Fuel Fact Files Oil Oil Status: non-renewable fossil fuel Description: where formed? What from? Lifespan: 41 years [how do they know that? New fields being found – OK so not long?] % of the world’s energy: 34 Main producers: Saudi Arabia, USA, Russia, Iran, Mexico …. Energy uses: electricity, petroleum, etc + plastics etc Advantages:? Disadvantages:?
16 The Fuel Fact Files Natural Gas Natural Gas Status: non-renewable fossil fuel Description: where formed? What from? Lifespan: 62 years [how do they know that? New fields being found – OK so a while yet?] % of the world’s energy: 20 Main producers: Russia, USA, UK (but sinking fast), Algeria Energy uses: electricity, heating – but they don’t mention LPG – increasing used in vehicles Advantages:? Disadvantages:?
17 The Fuel Fact Files Nuclear Nuclear Status: non-renewable(?? – remember earlier comments) Description: Uranium, found in rocks/sea generates heat to turn water into steam that Lifespan: unknown % of the world’s energy: 6 Main producers: USA, France, Japan, Germany, Russia Energy uses: electricity Advantages:? Disadvantages:? Sizewell B in Suffolk – the last one to have been built in the UK
18 The Fuel Fact Files Fuelwood Fuelwood non-renewable fossil fuel Status: non-renewable fossil fuel Sustainable Sustainable Description: Trees, not grown for fuels(???) Lifespan: viable within each country but declining (really?) % of the world’s energy: 14 Main producers: LEDCs – Africa, Asia – (tell that to pellet fuel producers in Wales) Energy uses: heating and cooking Advantages:? Disadvantages:? NONONONO That’s better!
19 The Fuel Fact Files Hydro-electric power Hydro-electric power Status: renewable Description: running water turns the turbine that generates electricity - water usually stored behind a dam % of the world’s energy: 4 (that is of all energy – of electricity it is closer to 20%) Main producers: Canada, USA, Brazil, China, Russia Energy uses: Electricity Advantages:? Disadvantages:? Three Gorges Dam
20 The Fuel Fact Files Tidal (also wave power) Tidal (also wave power) Status: renewable Description: tides/waves turns the turbine that generates electricity - water usually stored behind a dam % of the world’s energy: hardly any yet – lots of research – Severn Barrage could produce 10% UK electricity Main producers: France, Russia Energy uses: Electricity Advantages:? Disadvantages:? Three Gorges Dam
21 At this point, I have finished moaning!! But we have not finished And with luck we should have a bit of the lesson left. So start the homework which will be to complete the fact files for: Solar Geothermal Wind Biomass And any others you can find
22 Here are a few good sites http://www.darvill.clara.net/altenerg/inde x.htm - has most of it!! But don’t go into detail of how it is produced http://www.darvill.clara.net/altenerg/inde x.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Renewable_en ergy has quite a lot of good things http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Renewable_en ergy http://www.geocities.com/daveclarkecb/El ecGenProsCons.html go to the bottom to find a comprehensive table of pros and cons http://www.geocities.com/daveclarkecb/El ecGenProsCons.html