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Chapter 3 Basic Concepts of Anthropometry. Objective (from syllabus) To understand the relationship between human body size, shape and composition, and.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 3 Basic Concepts of Anthropometry. Objective (from syllabus) To understand the relationship between human body size, shape and composition, and."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 3 Basic Concepts of Anthropometry

2 Objective (from syllabus) To understand the relationship between human body size, shape and composition, and movement capability

3 Anthropometry Definition: Dimensions and composition of the body E.g. bone thickness & proportions, body fat %, lean body mass See also kinanthropometry, which is the same thing but as applied to movement Tools for measurement All kinds of rulers, calipers and so on (and for lean body mass, some regression models to estimate body fat % based on a variety of assumptions) Stadiometers, anthropometers, bicondylar calipers, skinfold calipers etc... Height, body segment length, bone diameter, skinfold + fat width

4 Anthropometry Body size It’s a field for the obsessive in terms of measuring protocols Determination of body shape A variety of proportions are measured BMI (mass/ht 2 ) [(Sitting ht)/)(standing ht)] x 100 Certain proportions and shapes have been found to be associated with health or performance in certain activities, hence the interest Exceptions are always interesting though (e.g. Usain Bolt) Consider also cause and effect dimensionality Limb length relative to torso Bulk (fatness?)

5 Anthropometry Tissues composing the body Anthropometry is interested in estimating tissue proportion in the living Most popular example is lean body mass & fat – gives the 2- component anthropometric model The book cites errors even with underwater weighing, which is normally the gold standard for estimation of body fat % Should bear in mind that with all estimation techniques, they work best for typical people DEXA (dual x-ray absorpiometry): 3-component model – lean tissue divided into calcified tissue and other non-fat tissue More accurate, but a lot more expensive than a set of calipers General idea here...as opposed to losing weight, you should increase lean body mass (yes, increase...or at least not lose it). So, abnormally fat, thin, or muscular people don’t get such accurate estimates Implies increased training to build muscle mass...which in turn leads to fat loss MRI, CAT scans even better but even more expensive

6 Anthropometry Somatotyping The practice of classifying body types according to 3 dimensions (following the most popular Heath- Carter method) Endomorphy (fatness) Mesomorphy (muscularity & bone size) Ectomorphy (thinness)  Replete with measurement errors, but still tends to be quite reliably associated with performance stereotypes Skinfolds relative to height Bone girth relative to arm, leg girth, with fatness taken out Weight relative to height

7 Anthropometry Human variation Emerges from a variety of causes Age and activity are covered in the next chapters In the musculoskeletal system Nothing very interesting here (and open to misinterpretation) In physical dimensions As before, these are open to misinterpretation and stereotyping Features that are more determined by genetics might (??) be more reasonably analyzed (e.g. jaw line in males generally larger) “typical” make up of males and females is an example of this – see Caster Semenya controversy

8 Chapter 4 Musculoskeletal changes across the life span

9 Objective from syllabus To summarize how concepts related to the musculoskeletal system and anthropometry are affected by growth and maturation

10 Auxology and gerontology defined Auxology – the science of growth Is physical age proceeding apace with chronological age? Gerontology – the science of aging What does aging do to your body & mind? Tools for measurement Similar to anthropometry (after all, it’s still measurement)

11 Changes across the lifespan Physical growth, maturation, and aging Embryological development Ovum + spermatozoan  zygote (fertilized cell) Zygote repeatedly divides and multiplies Mesodermic development follows  Growth of organs, tissues, musculoskeletal system Marked by hyperplastic growth (increase in # cells) The postnatal years Keep on growing, keep on maturing (a term implying genetically determined growth) Exercise and aging – see ch. 12

12 Changes across the lifespan Age-related changes in the skeletal and articular systems Two main phases  Foetal (hyperplastic)  Pubertal (hypertrophic) Stages in development of bone Bone grows initially from cartilage Cells calcify and then remodeling proceeds via formation and erosion of cells to give the final shape Growth of length and width of bone Epiphyseal (growth) plate in which cartilage calcifies causes bone to lengthen  Continues until cartilage ceases to calcify Change in thickness not limited by age (see ch. 5)

13 Changes across the lifespan Age-related changes in the skeletal and articular systems Skeletal composition changes across the life span Childhood: more collagen, thus more flexible bone (Young) Adulthood: more salt, thus more strength Old Adulthood: yet more salt, so more brittle, but also total mass of bone decreases  Increased porosity, decreased density, increased hardness, more brittle...not good news...

14 Changes across the lifespan Age-related changes in the skeletal and articular systems Osteoporosis In post-menopausal women, linked to estrogen depletion, so that bone absorption increases relative to it’s growth To offset this, as bone mass peaks at 16 to 20, health experts recommend maximizing bone mass by that time Osteoporosis in males is accelerating (lifestyle changes) Bone failure in relation to bone development, age or activity Type of fractures change with age and type of bone Forearm fractures in childhood Hip and wrist fractures in elderly women Effect of various factors on range of motion Decrease with age (how many can still suck their [own] toes)? Decrease with arthritis

15 Changes across the lifespan Age-related changes in the muscular system Umm...the more interesting stuff is in chapter 5 (hopefully) Change in body dimensions across the life span The “growth spurt” (peak height velocity) see. P. 49 In females early maturers ended up being no different to late maturers in height In males, late maturers started off being shorter and ended up being significantly taller

16 Changes across the lifespan Age-related changes in the muscular system Combining size measurements to provide information about shape

17 Changes across the lifespan Age-related changes in the muscular system Secular trend in body dimensions

18 Changes across the lifespan Age-related changes in the muscular system Growth rates of body segments As expected following fig. 4.5, body parts grow at different rates  Limbs grow faster than trunk; legs grow faster than arms Growth rates of body tissues Brain size close to adult early on Reproductive tissue grows rapidly through puberty

19 Changes across the lifespan Age-related changes in the muscular system Sexual dimorphism in growth Female growth spurt two years earlier than males’  Females often taller than males between years Fatness progresses differently for males and females

20 Changes across the lifespan Age-related changes in the muscular system Somatotype changes during growth, maturation, and aging 2 pubertal stages in males  First an increase in ectomorphy at around yrs  Then an increase in mesomorphy between yrs Methods of determining age Dentistry, bone growth, menarche and sexual maturity are the methods, but there’s nothing of particular interest here. Correct me if I’m wrong

21 Chapter 5 Musculoskeletal adaptations to training

22 Objective from syllabus To summarize how concepts related to the musculoskeletal system and anthropometry adapt to physical activity

23 Musculoskeletal adaptations to training Effects of physical activity on bone Generally, the more activity a bone sustains, the more it will adapt to be suited to that activity (gets thicker with prolonged use) Effects of activity level on bone Elite youth athletes and stress fractures – too much too soon Loss of bone mass in space Loss of bone mass at rest (bone needs activity to stay healthily dense) Exercise generally increases bone mass (weight bearing – swimmers vs. others)

24 Musculoskeletal adaptations to training Effects of physical activity on bone Effects of activity type on bone Weight bearing activities best to add bone  Swimmers vs. wtlifters  Takes about 3-4 remodelling cycles to reach new steady state for bone tissue quality  Bone decreases in quality quicker than it increases, so activity should be sustained for maximum effect Bone repair and physical activity See fig. 5.1 – the implication is that bone (& other tissue) needs time to repair from any inactivity

25 Musculoskeletal adaptations to training Effects of physical activity on joint structure and ranges of motion Synovial fluid, articular cartilage, and ligaments Cartilage  Short bout of cyclical exercise results in thickening of cartilage  Thickens as a result of absorbing synovial fluid  Chronic exercise leads to long-term thickening  (except where compressive forces are excessive – e.g. downhill running)

26 Musculoskeletal adaptations to training Effects of physical activity on joint structure and ranges of motion Synovial fluid, articular cartilage, and ligaments Synovial fluid  Short run can increase synovial fluid from about.2-.5ml in the knee to three times as much  Becomes less viscous (hence more easily soaked up by cartilage)  Cartilage soaks it up, so it is probably still the cartilage doing the protection Ligament  Exercise strengthens and stiffens ligaments (increase in both collagen synthesis & cross linking)

27 Musculoskeletal adaptations to training Effects of physical activity on joint structure and ranges of motion Degenerative joint disease and exercise Linked with obesity (physical activity?), ageing Does jogging lead to osteoarthritis (degenerative joint disease)? Clinicians apparently say so, but the evidence is weak  Epidemiological studies imply the relationship exists only for those with previous ligament damage – so that the joint moves abnormally over a protracted period of time

28 Musculoskeletal adaptations to training Effects of physical activity on muscle-tendon units Muscle size decreases with disuse Flexibility A function of the muscle-tendon unit, not the joint capsule or ligament Joint laxity is a bad thing (stretched ligaments) Highly joint and activity specific Seems to be primarily increased through stretchiness of connective tissue (some sarcomere adaptation) Not limited by increased muscularity (being muscle-bound is not inevitable)

29 Musculoskeletal adaptations to training Effects of physical activity on muscle-tendon units Strength training First 6-8 weeks: neurotrophic stage – improved coordination leads to rapid increases in strength Then...hypertrophic stage – muscle fibers increase in cross-sectional area Tendon adaptation Slower to adapt than muscle Adapts via collagen synthesis Injuries most common at muscle-tendon junction

30 Musculoskeletal adaptations to training Effects of physical activity on body size, shape, and composition Body composition will alter as a result of exercise, but ectomorphy might not (and weight might increase) Role of lifestyle factors in determining physique Many differences between athletes’ physique and those of the “normal” population are simply adaptations to training Relationship of body sizes and types to sports Well, we can see it can’t we?  Long distance runners are lighter, sprinters more muscular, gymnasts shorter, and so on...

31 Results of Lab Definitely need to take these with a pinch of salt. We could all do with training/retraining on skinfold techniques, and even then there were some definite issues with the equations Ectomorphy Endomorphy Mesomorphy Compare to p.61


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