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Minor/non-finite System Major and minor sentences A major sentence is a regular sentence; it has a SUBJECT and a PREDICATE However, a minor sentence is.

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Presentation on theme: "Minor/non-finite System Major and minor sentences A major sentence is a regular sentence; it has a SUBJECT and a PREDICATE However, a minor sentence is."— Presentation transcript:

1 Minor/non-finite System Major and minor sentences A major sentence is a regular sentence; it has a SUBJECT and a PREDICATE However, a minor sentence is an irregular type of sentence. It does not contain a finite verb. For example, "Mary!" "Yes." "Coffee." etc. Other examples of minor sentences are headings (e.g. the heading of this entry), stereotyped expressions ("Hello!"), emotional expressions ("Wow!")…..

2 SAL – CLAUSES Minor/non-finite System The non-finite clause always has the ability to do without a subject: The best thing would be to tell everybody Also (optional subject) … for you to tell everybody It’s great to be free Covered in confusion, I left the room The absence of a finite verb from non-finite clauses, means that they have no distinction of person, number, or tense.

3 SAL – CLAUSES Minor/non-finite System Kids like to play on computers. (an infinitive clause using the English to-infinitive) It's easy for kids to play on computers. (an infinitive clause containing periphrastic expression of the subject) Playing on computers, they whiled the day away. (a participial clause, using a present participle) The kids playing on their computers, we were able to enjoy some time alone. (a participal clause with a subject) Having played on computers all day, they were pale and hungry. (a participial clause using a past participle) Playing on computers is fun. (a gerund clause)

4 SAL – CLAUSES Minor/non-finite System They constitute a means of syntactic compression. Popular in certain types of written discourse where the writer wants to suggest that their meaning should be recovered from the context. Can you try to detect the missing forms (verb TO BE + pronoun)?: Defeated, he left the room Once appointed prime minister, he took the strict measures expected of him During emergencies, feelings normally kept in check are ready to flourish

5 SAL – CLAUSES Minor/non-finite System non-finite and minor clauses are a feature of disjunctive grammar; In disjunctive grammar (i.e. marked by break or disunity) relation between different parts of the message is inferred (not grammatically indicated): “Cascade. Because you don’t have time for spots” (Cascade dishwasher)

6 Disjunctive grammar Leech, English in Advertising, chapter 9 Main difference between discursive and disjunctive grammar: – in discursive grammar, minor and non-finite clauses are dependent; – in disjunctive grammar, minor and non-finite clauses are independent

7 Disjunctive grammar Minor sentences (The new 2012 Buick La Crosse)

8 Disjunctive grammar Minor sentences

9 Disjunctive grammar Block Language

10 SAL – CLAUSES Minor/non-finite System

11 Disjunctive & abbreviated modes Leech, English in Advertising, chapter 9 Message is very simple, its significance inferred from the circumstances in which it is transmitted. Accompanied by other means (visuals) Disjunctive mode is used – Public notices, signs – Posters – Catalogues, inventories, tabulated materials – Postal address – Labels and trade-marks – Titles and headings

12 Disjunctive & abbreviated modes Leech, English in Advertising, chapter 9 Abbreviated mode is used in: – Telegrams – Newspaper headlines.

13 Disjunctive mode See Leech, English in Advertising, chapter 9 Disjunctive language offers many clues so as to have a correct interpretation of the message. Notices on 4 DOORS: Artizzu Prof. Fodde No exit Staff only How much of English grammar is needed for their description??

14 Disjunctive mode See Leech, English in Advertising, chapter 9 In disjunctive grammar, the only grammar we need is a knowledge of the structure of English proper names: one part of the nominal group. GENTLEMEN’S WASHROOM ENQUIRIES AND APLICATIONS FOR VISA

15 Disjunctive mode See Leech, English in Advertising, chapter 9 The disjunctive grammar that uses proper names or nominal group structures only is called BLOCK LANGUAGE. Block language is characteristic of many types of public announcements, in posters.

16 Disjunctive grammar Leech, English in Advertising, chapter 9

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19 Each NG = isolated unit Relation between different parts of the message is inferred (not grammatically indicated). In poster-like presentation the Z-reading path is waived for the sake of immediate visual impact

20 Disjunctive grammar Leech, English in Advertising, chapter 9 Each NG = isolated unit Relation between different parts of the message is inferred (not grammatically indicated). In poster-like presentation the Z-reading path is waived for the sake of immediate visual impact

21 Disjunctive grammar Leech, English in Advertising, chapter 9 For you this summer … a golden tan (A Z structure – INDEPENDENT MINOR CLAUSE) The castle, at one time a royal residence, is now the property of the National Trust (A Z structure – DEPENDENT MINOR CLAUSE) You …if you are aged and are taking or have passed your G.C.E. … and your future (A Z structure – INDEPENDENT MINOR CLAUSE)

22 Disjunctive grammar Leech, English in Advertising, chapter 9 Main difference between discursive and disjunctive grammar: – in discursive grammar, minor and non-finite clauses are dependent; – in disjunctive grammar, minor and non-finite clauses are independent

23 Abbreviated grammar Leech, English in Advertising, chapter 9 Typical of newspapers headlines Examples: – “Customs accused of offering secret amnesty”

24 Abbreviated grammar

25 There are a lot of pre-modifiers required to save space & to create ambiguity (which means to catch the interest of the reader) British left waffles on Falkland islands a) left Predicator + waffles Complement (waffle = a cake fried in butter) => P C b) left (British left) Head of S + waffles Predicator (to waffle = to ramble, i.e. speak in a confused manner ) => S P.

26 Small AD Small ad uses disjunctive grammar abbreviated grammar & block grammar: LTD Company est 1981 for sale. No assets or liabilities. VAT registered. UK bank acc with chequebook. Avble now. Substantial offers over £15,000. Internet bkg nominee service avble on both. Tel or quote ref DPH (The Sunday Times, Feb 27 th, 2005)

27 Small AD Classifieds Small ad uses disjunctive grammar abbreviated grammar & block grammar: “The landlord just finished this beautiful Salon and Spa and offering it for sale. Brand new equipment, retail displays, first class decoration, waiting room with fire place. Great Corner Visibility! Excellent retail displays with a great inventory. (4) chair Stations (2) Manicure and pedicure stations (1)Massage room Must see to appreciate, great investment for an active stylist or investment opportunity to run your own business”. (The New York Times, Nov. 26th, 2013)

28 …phew* You can now buy the emergency contraceptive pill from the pharmacy. It’s called Levonelle and works best within 24 hours but can be used up to 72 hours after unprotected sex.


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