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Where are we in the text? Lecture 2 covers and expands upon the material in Chapter 1 Because of copyright issues, some of the overheads I’ll use in class.

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Presentation on theme: "Where are we in the text? Lecture 2 covers and expands upon the material in Chapter 1 Because of copyright issues, some of the overheads I’ll use in class."— Presentation transcript:

1 Where are we in the text? Lecture 2 covers and expands upon the material in Chapter 1 Because of copyright issues, some of the overheads I’ll use in class are not included here.

2 OVERVIEW- Lecture 2 Adult Development? –Forces of Development –Biopsychosocial Perspective Principles of Adult Development and Aging –Lifespan Perspective Meaning of “age”

3 Overview continued What is it like being old? –Ageism The old in Canada: Demographics Myth busting… –Facts on Aging Quiz (Palmore, 1998) Revisited

4 OVERVIEW- Lecture 2 Adult Development? –Forces of Development –Biopsychosocial Perspective Principles of Adult Development and Aging –Lifespan Perspective Meaning of “age”

5 Adult Development? Development means “change” “Development” after adolescence is a relatively new concept

6 Forces of Development Biological Psychological Sociocultural Life-cycle influences

7 BioBioPsychoPsychoSocialSocial IdentityIdentity The Biopsychosocial Perspective

8 Forces of Development Personal aging VS.VS. Social aging = due to ontogenetic factors = due to historical change Source of Changes Over Time

9 Normative age-graded: experiences that culture and historical period attach to certain agesNormative age-graded: experiences that culture and historical period attach to certain ages such as marriage Influences on Development

10 Normative history-graded: events that occur to everyone within a certain culture or countryNormative history-graded: events that occur to everyone within a certain culture or country Influences on Development such as the Depression

11 Non-normative influences: Random events that occur due to coincidence, earlier decisions, and other peopleNon-normative influences: Random events that occur due to coincidence, earlier decisions, and other people Influences on Development such as winning the lottery

12 OVERVIEW- Lecture 2 Adult Development? –Forces of Development –Biopsychosocial Perspective Principles of Adult Development and Aging –Lifespan Perspective Meaning of “age”

13 Principles of Development 4 principles

14 Principles of Development (1) Changes Occur in Continuous FashionChanges Occur in Continuous Fashion –Changes in old age occur against the backdrop of prior history –People feel they are the “same” inside even though they change on the outside

15 Principles of Development (2) Older Adults Have Avoided DeathOlder Adults Have Avoided Death –Older adults have survived threats to life –Samples in old age become increasingly unlike those tested in young adulthood

16 Principles of Development (3) People Become More Different as They AgePeople Become More Different as They Age –Increased variability in many studies of aging with increasing age of samples –People’s lives become increasingly different as they move through adulthood

17 Remember…. Heterogeneity is the hallmark of aging

18 People Become More Different as They Age Inter-individual differences Intra-individual differences Differences from person to person Differences within each person multidirectionality of development

19 Principles of Development (4) Normal Aging is different from disease Normal aging Changes built into the aging process Changes due to disease Primary aging Impaired aging Secondary aging Optimal aging Process Alternate term Definition Successful aging Using compensation and prevention

20 The Lifespan Perspective (e.g.Baltes, 1987) Human development –early phase (childhood & adolescence) –later phase (young adulthood, middle age, old age)

21 The Lifespan Perspective Multidirectionality Plasticity Historical context Multiple causation

22 OVERVIEW- Lecture 2 Adult Development? –Forces of Development –Biopsychosocial Perspective Principles of Adult Development and Aging –Lifespan Perspective Meaning of “age”

23 The Meaning of Age Using Age to Define “Adult” Physical developmentPhysical development Voting ageVoting age Driving ageDriving age Age of consentAge of consent Drinking ageDrinking age 18 Best to use or 22 for college grads 18 Best to use or 22 for college grads (still not perfect) What is Maturity?

24 The Meaning of Age So what do we mean by older adult? So what do we mean by old? »Being over the age of 65

25 The Meaning of Age Divisions by Age of the Over-65 Population Young-old Old-old Oldest-old Newest category= Centenarians (100 year olds) Categories of Over-65

26 Centenarian study: Behind the research “Aging has too often been seen as a time of sickness, and inevitable dementia. The discovery that people can be physically and cognitively healthy at the age of 100 is turning this perception around” (p. 19 in your text)

27 The Meaning of Age Alternative Indices of Chronological Age Biological age- functioning of organ systemsBiological age- functioning of organ systems Psychological age- functioning on psychological testsPsychological age- functioning on psychological tests Social age- social roles occupied by the personSocial age- social roles occupied by the person Three Indices:

28 Overview continued What is it like being old? –Ageism The old in Canada: Demographics Myth busting… –Facts on Aging Quiz (Palmore, 1988) Revisited

29 What is it like being old? Ageism Stereotyped views of individuals AGE based on AGE Stereotyped views of individuals AGE based on AGE These may be PositivePositiveNegativeNegative OR kindlywisesweet cranky“senile”incompetent Definition of Ageism

30 Ageism: Basis? Modernization hypothesis Proposes that ageism is caused by increased urbanization and industrialization Disengagement theory Proposes that older individuals voluntarily withdraw from society. Contrasts with activity and continuity theories. Proposes that older individuals voluntarily withdraw from society. Contrasts with activity and continuity theories.

31 Ageism: Basis? Youth/Life Culture Focus on youth and strength. Aging associated with illness and death. Focus on youth and strength. Aging associated with illness and death. Age-segregation Lack of intergenerational interaction.

32 Reinforcing the stereotypes Media portrayals

33 Reinforcing the stereotypes Media portrayals Patronizing speech (e.g., Ryan, Hamilton, & Kwong See, 1993)

34 Reinforcing the stereotypes Media portrayals Patronizing speech (e.g., Ryan, Hamilton, & Kwong See, 1993) Age excuses (e.g., Ryan, Bieman-Copland, Kwong See, Ellis, & Anas (2002))

35 Consequences of Ageism Age- Bias –work setting –health care settings –eyewitness setting

36 Consequences of Ageism Age bias against older people –work setting –medical encounters –eyewitness setting Self-fulfilling Prophecy for the older person

37 Ageism, sexism, racism Aged Minority Multiple jeopardy Multiple Jeopardy Hypothesis

38 Aged Minority Multiple jeopardy Alternatives: Age-as-levelerAge-as-leveler Inoculation hypothesisInoculation hypothesis

39 Overview continued What is it like being old? –Ageism The old in Canada: Demographics Myth busting… –Facts on Aging Quiz (Palmore, 1988) Revisited

40 The old in Canada: Demographics Baby-Boomers (generation born between ) Life-expectancy Life-span

41 Population Aging (65+) Provinces, Territories, & Canada

42 Growth of Population Age 65+ Canada,

43 Canada’s Population Pyramid 1951 & 1991

44 Life Expectancy, by Age

45 Changing demographics Has led to the rise of Gerontology »need to know »need to prepare »need to train

46 Overview continued What is it like being old? –Ageism The old in Canada: Demographics Myth busting… –Facts on Aging Quiz (Palmore, 1988) Revisited

47 Myth Busting Facts on Aging Revisited #15 In general old people tend to be pretty much alike FALSE

48 Myth Busting Facts on Aging Quiz Revisited #19 Over 20% of the population are now age 65 or over False

49 Myth Busting Facts on Aging Quiz Revisited #20 The majority of medical practictioners tend to give low priority to the aged. True


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