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Elements of Self-Determined Behavior.  What skills and attitudes must a person possess to be considered a self-determined individual?  How can we promote.

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Presentation on theme: "Elements of Self-Determined Behavior.  What skills and attitudes must a person possess to be considered a self-determined individual?  How can we promote."— Presentation transcript:

1 Elements of Self-Determined Behavior

2  What skills and attitudes must a person possess to be considered a self-determined individual?  How can we promote these skills and attitudes?


4 Choice-making  Identifying and communicating a preference  Strategies:  Create a structured environment that allows plenty of opportunities for choice.  choice of activities; choice of location; choice of time  choice to refuse to participate; choice to end an activity  Teach student to communicate preferences.  Explain risks and consequences of various choices.  Sometimes, less is more!  George Miller’s “Magical Number 7  2”

5 Problem-solving  Identifying & defining a problem and generating solutions  Strategies:  Introduce novel tasks.  Change the context of tasks.  Use the natural environment.  Model by “thinking out loud” your own problem- solving steps.  Promote exploration. Allow mistakes!  Encourage generalizations.

6 Decision-making  Coming to a conclusion about which solution is best and most effective given one’s circumstances, values, priorities and needs  Strategies:  Teach student to: 1. List action alternatives 2. Identify consequences of those actions 3. Assess probability of each consequence occurring 4. Establish relative value of each consequence 5. Integrating these values and probabilities to identify the most attractive action  Use the Modified SDLMI worksheet.

7 Goal-setting and Attainment  Involves actions that enable a person to reach a specified preferred outcome  Strategies:  Allow students to explore their wants and needs.  Allow students to set goals based on their own interests, wants and needs.  Work with students to set guidelines for each goal:  amount of time needed to meet goal  work that needs to be done to meet goal  help from other people to meet goal  Use the Modified SDLMI worksheet.

8 Self-regulation (Self-management)  Response system that allows individuals to examine their environment and responses, and revise their strategies as needed Sub-componentStrategies – Teach students to: Self-observationAssess, observe and record their own behavior (checklists, documentation, etc.) Self-evaluationSystematically record their progress towards the goal (charts, graphs, etc.) Self-reinforcementProvide their own verbal prompts, cues and reinforcers

9 Leadership  Skills needed to lead, guide and direct  Strategies:  Utilize group sessions.  Allow a student to lead the group.  Teach students how to be an effective team member.  Encourage students to participate (and lead) in class and after-class projects.  Teach students to participate in and lead an IEP meeting. Use the lesson plan for student-led IEP meeting.

10 Self-Advocacy  Speaking up on one’s own behalf  Strategies:  Teach students  About their rights & responsibilities (IDEA, ADA)  How to communicate, negotiate & compromise  How to listen effectively  How to navigate through systems and bureaucracies  Teach students to participate in and lead their own IEP meetings.  Promote self-advocacy in group sessions.  Use the “Speak Up!” self-advocacy worksheet


12 Self-efficacy  Belief in one’s ability to successfully engage in a specific behavior that will result in a desired outcome (“I can do this!”)  Strategies:  Usually cannot be taught directly.  May be enhanced by repeated successful experiences.  Assist student set goals/engage in activities that are commensurate to student’s skills  too difficult = anxiety  too easy = boredom

13 Perception of Control  Belief they have control over outcomes that are important to their lives (“If I do this, I know that will happen!”)  Strategies:  Honor student’s choices and decisions.  Use student-directed learning activities.  Structure activities so that students can perform more actions for themselves. (Don’t use an over- controlling style of instruction.)

14 Self-awareness and Self- knowledge  Understanding of one’s strengths & weaknesses, abilities & limitations; and how to utilize these to one’s benefit  Strategies:  Teach students how to do a skills inventory. (Focus on strengths; students typically know their limitations.)  Teach students compensation strategies.  Use the natural environment to allow real-life experiences.

15 References Wood, Karvonen, Test, Browder and Algozzine (2004). Promoting self-determination skills in IEP planning. TEACHING Exceptional Children. 36; 3, pp.8-16 Wehmeyer and Schalock (2001). Self-determination and quality of life: implications for special education services and supports. Focus on Exceptional Children Wehmeyer and Palmer (2002) A Parent’s Guide to the Self- Determined Learning Model for Early Elementary Students. Beach Center on Disability. Schiefelbusch Institute for Lifespan Studies.

16 Self-Determination Across the Lifespan Choice-making Problem-solving Goal-setting & attainment with adult assistance Self-regulation Goal setting & attainment with less adult assistance Decision-making with adult assistance Self-advocacy Better self-awareness and self-knowledge Better perception of control & efficacy Decision-making All elements are coming together AGE 2-5 6-8 9-11 12 & up

17 Self-Determination Across the Lifespan Reference: Doll, Sands, Wehmeyer and Palmer (1996). Promoting the development and acquisition of self-determined behavior. In Sands and Wehmeyr (Eds.), Self-determination across the lifespan: Independence and choice for people with disabilities. pp. 63-88 detail_page.aspx?Type=Book&intResourceID=720

18 Student-Directed PT Services

19 TOTAL Therapy  Each letter of TOTAL Therapy corresponds to various elements of self-determined behavior:  T = choice-making and decision-making  O = goal setting and attainment, leadership  T = problem-solving  A = self-advocacy  L = self-regulation  The attitudes of self-efficacy, perception of control, self-awareness and self-knowledge may be enhanced by any and all components of TOTAL Therapy.

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